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دوشنبه دوازدهم اسفند 1387

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Cover

Current Issue:
January 2009

Selected Abstracts 
Returned: 23 citations and abstracts. Click on down arrow or scroll to see abstracts.

down M. C. Therrien
Registration of ‘Desperado’ Six-Row Barley
Journal of Plant Registrations 3: 1-4.

down Kevin E. McPhee, and Fred J. Muehlbauer
Registration of ‘Riveland’ Lentil
Journal of Plant Registrations 3: 5-9.

down James L. Brewbaker
Registration of Nine Maize Populations Resistant to Tropical Diseases
Journal of Plant Registrations 3: 10-13.

down D. W. Gorbet, and B. L. Tillman
Registration of ‘Florida-07’ Peanut
Journal of Plant Registrations 3: 14-18.

down T. C. Helms, B. D. Nelson, and R. J. Goos
Registration of ‘Cavalier’ Soybean
Journal of Plant Registrations 3: 19-21.

down T. E. Carter, Jr., J. W. Burton, P. E. Rzewnicki, M. R. Villagarcia, M. O. Fountain, D. T. Bowman, and Earl Taliercio
Registration of ‘N8101’ Small-Seeded Soybean
Journal of Plant Registrations 3: 22-27.

down Jack C. Comstock, Barry Glaz, Serge J. Edmé, R. Wayne Davidson, Robert A. Gilbert, Neil C. Glynn, Jimmy D. Miller, and Peter Y.P. Tai
Registration of ‘CP 00-1446’ Sugarcane
Journal of Plant Registrations 3: 28-34.

down Barry Glaz, Serge J. Edmé, R. Wayne Davidson, Robert A. Gilbert, Jack C. Comstock, Neil C. Glynn, Jimmy D. Miller, and Peter Y.P. Tai
Registration of ‘CP 00-2180’ Sugarcane
Journal of Plant Registrations 3: 35-41.

down T. L. Tew, E. O. Dufrene, D. D. Garrison, W. H. White, M. P. Grisham, Y.-B. Pan, E. P. Richard, Jr., B. L. Legendre, and J. D. Miller
Registration of ‘HoCP 00-950’ Sugarcane
Journal of Plant Registrations 3: 42-50.

down R. A. Graybosch, C. J. Peterson, P. S. Baenziger, D. D. Baltensperger, L. A. Nelson, Y. Jin, J. Kolmer, B. Seabourn, R. French, G. Hein, T. J. Martin, B. Beecher, T. Schwarzacher, and P. Heslop-Harrison
Registration of ‘Mace’ Hard Red Winter Wheat
Journal of Plant Registrations 3: 51-56.

down K. B. Jensen, S. R. Larson, B. L. Waldron, and J. G. Robins
‘Hycrest II’, a New Crested Wheatgrass Cultivar with Improved Seedling Establishment
Journal of Plant Registrations 3: 57-60.

down Kevin B. Jensen, Anthony J. Palazzo, Blair L. Waldron, Joseph G. Robins, B. Shaun Bushman, Douglas A. Johnson, and Dan G. Ogle
‘Vavilov II’, a New Siberian Wheatgrass Cultivar with Improved Persistence and Establishment on Rangelands
Journal of Plant Registrations 3: 61-64.

down B. T. Scully, R. T. Nagata, R. H. Cherry, L. E. Trenholm, and J. B. Unruh
Registration of ‘Pristine’ Zoysiagrass
Journal of Plant Registrations 3: 65-68.

down Fred M. Bourland, and Don Jones
Registration of Arkot 9623 and Arkot 9625 Germplasm Lines of Cotton
Journal of Plant Registrations 3: 69-72.

down B. T. Campbell, O. L. May, D. S. Howle, and D. C. Jones
Registration of PD 99035 Germplasm Line of Cotton
Journal of Plant Registrations 3: 73-76.

down L. Zeng, and W.R. Meredith, Jr.
Registration of Five Exotic Germplasm Lines of Cotton Derived from Multiple Crosses among Gossypium Tetraploid Species
Journal of Plant Registrations 3: 77-80.

down C. W. Smith, S. Hague, P. S. Thaxton, E. Hequet, and D. Jones
Registration of Eight Extra-Long Staple Upland Cotton Germplasm Lines
Journal of Plant Registrations 3: 81-85.

down B. Badu-Apraku, and C. G. Yallou
Registration of Striga-Resistant and Drought-Tolerant Tropical Early Maize Populations TZE-W Pop DT STR C4 and TZE-Y Pop DT STR C4
Journal of Plant Registrations 3: 86-90.

down M. S. Pathan, K. M. Clark, J. A. Wrather, G. L. Sciumbato, J. G. Shannon, H. T. Nguyen, and D. A. Sleper
Registration of Soybean Germplasm SS93-6012 and SS93-6181 Resistant to Phomopsis Seed Decay
Journal of Plant Registrations 3: 91-93.

down J. Grover Shannon, Jeong-Dong Lee, J. Allen Wrather, David A. Sleper, M. A. Rouf Mian, Jason P. Bond, and Robert T. Robbins
Registration of S99-2281 Soybean Germplasm Line with Resistance to Frogeye Leaf Spot and Three Nematode Species
Journal of Plant Registrations 3: 94-98.

down Byron L. Burson, Charles R. Tischler, and William R. Ocumpaugh
Breeding for Reduced Post-Harvest Seed Dormancy in Switchgrass: Registration of TEM-LoDorm Switchgrass Germplasm
Journal of Plant Registrations 3: 99-103.

down Wenguang Cao, George Fedak, Ken Armstrong, Allen Xue, and Marc E. Savard
Registration of Spring Wheat Germplasm TC 67 Resistant to Fusarium Head Blight
Journal of Plant Registrations 3: 104-106.

down M. J. Carena, and D. W. Wanner
Development of Genetically Broad-based Inbred Lines of Maize for Early-Maturing (70–80RM) Hybrids
Journal of Plant Registrations 3: 107-111.


Abstract 1 of 23 back

CULTIVARS

Registration of ‘Desperado’ Six-Row Barley

M. C. Therrien*

AAFC-Brandon Research Center, Box 1000A, RR 3, 18th and Grand Valley Rd., Brandon, MB R7A 5Y3, Canada

* Corresponding author (mtherrien@agr.gc.ca ).

ABSTRACT

‘Desperado’ six-row barley [Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare L.] (Reg. No. CV-340; PI 654069) was developed and released by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Brandon Research Centre as a dual-purpose forage and feed cultivar in April 2008. It was derived from a complex cross with the Brandon composite cross BR CC 053 as base parent and evaluated in 20 field tests in western Canada. Desperado is adapted to the Parkland region of western Canada with high grain and dry matter yield potential and good grain test weight. Desperado has 6% higher dry matter yield than ‘AC Ranger’ and similar grain yield and test weight to AC Ranger. Desperado is resistant to several important barley diseases including stem rust (Rpg1 resistance gene) and the surface-borne smuts, as well as moderate resistance to spot blotch (Cochliobolus spp.) and common root rot [caused by Cochliobolus sativus (Ito and Kuribayashi,) Dreschs. ex Dastur.].

Abbreviations: AAFC, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada • MSFRS, male sterile facilitated recurrent selection • PRCOB, Prairie Registration Recommending Committee for Oats and Barley

[Full Text of Therrien] [Reprint (PDF) Version of Therrien]


Abstract 2 of 23 back

CULTIVARS

Registration of ‘Riveland’ Lentil

Kevin E. McPhee* and Fred J. Muehlbauer

USDA-ARS, P.O. Box 646434, Pullman, WA, 99164-6434

* Corresponding author (kevin.mcphee@ndsu.edu ).

ABSTRACT

‘Riveland’ (Reg. No. CV-32, PI 649919) lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) was released by the USDA-ARS (Pullman, WA) in cooperation with Washington State University Agricultural Research Center, University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station, and North Dakota State University Agricultural Experiment Station in June 2007. Riveland was released on the basis of exceptionally large seed size, broad adaptation to U.S. production zones, excellent seed quality, and high yield potential. Riveland was named after Neil Riveland, agronomist, North Dakota State University, Williston Research Extension Center, Williston, ND. Riveland was selected as an F5 plant row in 1998. It originated from the cross ‘Laird’/VW000412 (cross number X95L073) made by F.J. Muehlbauer in 1995. Laird is a large-seeded yellow-cotyledon cultivar developed in Canada by A.E. Slinkard, and VW000412 is a large-seeded breeding line developed by V.E. Wilson, a USDA-ARS agronomist at Pullman (retired).

Abbreviations: PENV, pea enation mosaic virus • PHI, plant height index

[Full Text of McPhee and Muehlbauer] [Reprint (PDF) Version of McPhee and Muehlbauer]


Abstract 3 of 23 back

CULTIVARS

Registration of Nine Maize Populations Resistant to Tropical Diseases

James L. Brewbaker*

Dep. Tropical Plant and Soil Science, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, Univ. of Hawaii, 3190 Maile Way, Honolulu, HI 96822. Institutional Sponsor: University of Hawaii

* Corresponding author (Brewbake@hawaii.edu ).

ABSTRACT

Nine open-pollinated populations of maize (Zea mays L.), ‘HIC1’ (Reg. No. CV-2, PI 652866), ‘HIC2’ (Reg. No. CV-3, PI 652867), ‘HIC3’ (Reg. No. CV-4, PI 652868), ‘HIS1’ (Reg. No. CV-5, PI 652869), ‘HIS2’ (Reg. No. CV-6, PI 652870), ‘HIS3’ (Reg. No. CV-7, PI 652871), ‘HIS4’ (Reg. No. CV-8, PI 652872), ‘HIS5’ (Reg. No. CV-9, PI 652873), and ‘HIS6’ (Reg. No. CV-10, PI 652874), were released by Hawaii Foundation Seeds of the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources of the University of Hawaii. Six are inbred-based synthetic populations (HIS1–HIS6) selected for resistance to specific diseases, and three are composites (HIC1–HIC3) derived from open-pollinated predecessors. The populations are largely tropically adapted flints that involve from 10 to 25% temperate parentage. They represent a total of 92 cycles of recurrent selection, and all are resistant to Maize mosaic virus.

Abbreviations: CTAHR, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources • GCA, general combining ability • HFS, Hawaii Foundations Seeds • MMV, Maize mosaic virus

[Full Text of Brewbaker] [Reprint (PDF) Version of Brewbaker]


Abstract 4 of 23 back

CULTIVARS

Registration of ‘Florida-07’ Peanut

D. W. Gorbet and B. L. Tillman*

Agronomy Dep., North Florida Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Univ. of Florida, 3925 Hwy. 71, Marianna, FL 32446

* Corresponding author (btillman@ufl.edu ).

ABSTRACT

‘Florida-07’ (Reg. No. CV-104, PI 652938) peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) cultivar was developed by the University of Florida, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, North Florida Research and Education Center near Marianna, FL. It was approved for release in 2006. Florida-07 has larger-than-average runner market–type seeds and pods. The growth habit of Florida-07 is prostrate, typical of runner-type peanut cultivars. Under irrigation in Florida, it matures about 140 d after planting, which places it in the category of medium-late relative maturity. Release of Florida-07 was made on the basis of its excellent pod yield potential, competitive kernel grade (percentage total sound mature kernels), high-oleic fatty acid oil chemistry, and resistance to spotted wilt (caused by Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus) and white mold (Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.).

Abbreviations: TSMK, total sound mature kernels • UPPT, Uniform Peanut Performance Tests

[Full Text of Gorbet and Tillman] [Reprint (PDF) Version of Gorbet and Tillman]


Abstract 5 of 23 back

CULTIVARS

Registration of ‘Cavalier’ Soybean

T. C. Helmsa,*, B. D. Nelsonb and R. J. Goosc

a Dep. of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND 58105-5051
b Dep. of Plant Pathology, North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND 58105
c Dep. of Soil Science, North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND 58105. Research supported by grants from the North Dakota Soybean Council

* Corresponding author (Ted.Helms@ndsu.edu ).

ABSTRACT

‘Cavalier’ soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] (Reg. No. CV-499, PI 654358) was first tested as ND02-2019, and was developed by the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, North Dakota State University. Cavalier was released in January 2008 and is a Maturity Group 00 conventional cultivar (00.7), generally adapted as a full-season cultivar from 48 to 49° N latitude. Cavalier was released because it has (i) resistance to race 4 of Phytophthora sojae (M.J. Kaufmann and J.W. Gerdemann), (ii) high yield in North Dakota environments, (iii) lodging resistance, and (iv) tolerance to iron-deficiency chlorosis.

Abbreviations: NDSU, North Dakota State University

[Full Text of Helms et al.] [Reprint (PDF) Version of Helms et al.]


Abstract 6 of 23 back

CULTIVARS

Registration of ‘N8101’ Small-Seeded Soybean

T. E. Carter, Jr.a,*, J. W. Burtona, P. E. Rzewnickia, M. R. Villagarciaa, M. O. Fountaina, D. T. Bowmanb and Earl Taliercioa

a USDA-ARS, 3127 Ligon St., Raleigh, NC 27607
b Dep. of Crop Science, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695-7631. Reference to any specific commercial products, company, or trademark does not constitute its endorsement or recommendation by the U.S. Government

* Corresponding author (Thomas.Carter@ars.usda.gov ).

ABSTRACT

‘N8101’ soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] (Reg. No. CV-498, PI 654355) was cooperatively developed and released by the USDA-ARS and the North Carolina Agricultural Research Service in February 2008 as a small-seeded Maturity Group VIII conventional cultivar. N8101 is the first publicly released small-seeded soybean cultivar in its maturity group and has potential use in the Japanese soyfoods market. It was derived from the cross of small-seeded germplasm NC114 and a small-seeded cultivar N7101. N8101 is adapted to the southeastern United States between 30 and 36° N latitude. In 22 USDA regional trials, N8101 exhibited a 100-seed weight of 7.3 g, 5.4 g less than that of control variety, ‘Prichard RR’. Yield of N8101 was approximately 92% of that produced by Prichard RR (2712 kg ha–1). Over seven additional trials in North Carolina, N8101 had a 100-seed weight of 6.5 g, 1.4 g less than that of small-seeded Maturity Group VII cultivar N7103. Seed protein content was similar to that of Prichard RR, and seed carbohydrate composition was similar to that of N7103. N8101 is resistant to shattering, Soybean mosaic virus, frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora sojina Hara), and bacterial pustule [Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines (Nakano) Dye]. The reduced yield of N8101 compared with commodity-type cultivars limits its use to specialty purposes.

Abbreviations: CP, coefficient of parentage • HPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography • OVT, Official Variety Testing • RR, Roundup Ready • USB, United Soybean Board

[Full Text of Carter et al.] [Reprint (PDF) Version of Carter et al.]


Abstract 7 of 23 back

CULTIVARS

Registration of ‘CP 00-1446’ Sugarcane

Jack C. Comstocka, Barry Glaza,*, Serge J. Edméa, R. Wayne Davidsonb, Robert A. Gilbertc, Neil C. Glynna, Jimmy D. Millera and Peter Y.P. Taia

a USDA-ARS Sugarcane Field Station, 12990 US Hwy. 441 N., Canal Point, FL 33438
b Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc., P.O. Box 1208, Clewiston, FL 33440
c Univ. of Florida, Everglades Research and Education Center, 3200 East Palm Beach Road, Belle Glade, FL 33430. Mention of trade names or commercial products is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by USDA, the University of Florida, or the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc

* Corresponding author (Barry.Glaz@ars.usda.gov ).

ABSTRACT

‘CP 00-1446’ (Reg. No CV-133, PI 654092) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc., and was released to growers in Florida in September 2007. CP 00-1446 was selected from a cross of genotypes CP 93-1607 x CP 91-1150 made at Canal Point, FL, in January 1998. The female and male parents were advanced to the penultimate selection stage (Stage 3) and the final stage (Stage 4), respectively, of the Canal Point sugarcane cultivar breeding and selection program. CP 00-1446 was released and recommended for sand soils in Florida because of its high plant cane and acceptable ratoon per hectare yields of cane and sucrose and commercial recoverable sucrose on sand soils, and its acceptable disease reactions to smut [caused by Ustilago scitaminea (Sydow & P. Sydow)] (moderately susceptible), brown rust (caused by Puccinia melanocephala H. & P. Sydow) (moderately resistant), orange rust (caused by Puccinia kuehnii E.J. Butler) (moderately resistant), leaf scald (caused by Xanthomonas albilineans Ashby, Dowson) (resistant), Sugarcane mosaic virus strain E (mosaic) (moderately susceptible), and ratoon stunting disease (caused by Clavibacter xyli subsp. xyli Davis) (resistant) in Florida.

Abbreviations: CP, Canal Point • CP program, Canal Point sugarcane cultivar breeding and selection program • CRS, commercial recoverable sucrose • RSD, ratoon stunting disease

[Full Text of Comstock et al.] [Reprint (PDF) Version of Comstock et al.]


Abstract 8 of 23 back

CULTIVARS

Registration of ‘CP 00-2180’ Sugarcane

Barry Glaza,*, Serge J. Edméa, R. Wayne Davidsonb, Robert A. Gilbertc, Jack C. Comstocka, Neil C. Glynna, Jimmy D. Millera and Peter Y.P. Taia

a USDA-ARS Sugarcane Field Station, 12990 US Hwy. 441 N, Canal Point, FL 33438
b Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc., P.O. Box 1208, Clewiston, FL 33440
c Univ. of Florida, Everglades Res. and Educ. Ctr., 3200 East Palm Beach Rd., Belle Glade, FL 33430. Mention of trade names or commercial products is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by USDA, the University of Florida, or the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc

* Corresponding author (Barry.Glaz@ars.usda.gov ).

ABSTRACT

‘CP 00-2180’ (Reg. No. CV-134, PI 654093) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc., and was released to growers in Florida in September 2007. CP 00-2180 was selected from a self-cross of cultivar HoCP 91-552 made at Canal Point, FL, in January 1998. Based on its high cane yields and fiber content (16%), HoCP 91-552 was released as a cultivar for bioenergy in Louisiana. CP 00-2180 was released and recommended for sand soils in Florida because of its high plant cane and acceptable ratoon per hectare yields of cane and sucrose and commercial recoverable sucrose on sand soils, and its resistance to smut [caused by Ustilago scitaminea (Sydow & P. Sydow)], brown rust (caused by Puccinia melanocephala H. & P. Sydow), orange rust (caused by Puccinia kuehnii E.J. Butler), leaf scald [caused by Xanthomonas albilineans (Ashby) Dowson], Sugarcane mosaic virus strain E, and ratoon stunting disease (caused by Clavibacter xyli subsp. xyli Davis) in Florida.

Abbreviations: CP, Canal Point • CP program, Canal Point sugarcane cultivar breeding and selection program • CRS, commercial recoverable sucrose • RSD, ratoon stunting disease

[Full Text of Glaz et al.] [Reprint (PDF) Version of Glaz et al.]


Abstract 9 of 23 back

CULTIVARS

Registration of ‘HoCP 00-950’ Sugarcane

T. L. Tewa,*, E. O. Dufrenea, D. D. Garrisona, W. H. Whitea, M. P. Grishama, Y.-B. Pana, E. P. Richard, Jr.a, B. L. Legendrea,b and J. D. Millerc

a USDA-ARS, SRRC, Sugarcane Research Unit, 5883 USDA Rd., Houma, LA 70360
b current address: Louisiana State Univ. Agric. Center, Sugar Research Station, 5755 LSU Ag Rd., St. Gabriel, LA 70776
c USDA-ARS, Sugarcane Field Station, 12990 US Hwy. 441 N, Canal Point, FL 33438

* Corresponding author (Thomas.Tew@ars.usda.gov ).

ABSTRACT

‘HoCP 00-950’ (Reg. No. CV-135, PI 654823) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum officinarum L., S. spontaneum L., S. barberi Jeswiet, and S. sinense Roxb. amend. Jeswiet) was selected and evaluated by the USDA-ARS, working cooperatively with the Louisiana State University AgCenter, and the American Sugar Cane League, Inc. It was released to growers in Louisiana in April 2007. In 67 machine-harvested trials on light- and heavy-textured soils from 2004 to 2007 (plant-cane through third-ratoon crop) averaged over nine southern Louisiana locations, HoCP 00-950 produced 5% more sugar and had 6% higher sugar content than the industry standard, ‘HoCP 96-540’. In plant-cane and ratoon-crop maturity tests harvested in 2007, HoCP 00-950 had significantly higher sugar content than HoCP 96-540 across all harvest dates, with 35% higher sugar content at the outset of the harvest season (late September). HoCP 00-950 is resistant to brown rust (Puccinia melanocephala), smut (Ustilago scitaminea), leaf scald (Xanthomonas albilineans), and mosaic diseases. It is susceptible to the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis) and should not be planted in areas where pesticide use is restricted. The early maturity characteristic of HoCP 00-950 provides growers with a variety that can produce profitable sugar yields early in the milling season without the need to apply a chemical ripener.

Abbreviations: CVB, colonized vascular bundles • LSU, Louisiana State University • SCMV, Sugarcane mosaic virus, SRL, Sugarcane Research Laboratory • SrMV, Sorghum mosaic virus • RSD, ratoon stunting disease • SSR, simple sequence repeat

[Full Text of Tew et al.] [Reprint (PDF) Version of Tew et al.]

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دوشنبه دوازدهم اسفند 1387

مجله کشاورزی(1) ادمه مطلب

Cover

Current Issue:
January 2009

 

 

 

 Abstract 10 of 23back

CULTIVARS

Registration of ‘Mace’ Hard Red Winter Wheat

R. A. Grayboscha,*, C. J. Petersonb, P. S. Baenzigerc, D. D. Baltenspergerc,i, L. A. Nelsonc, Y. Jind, J. Kolmerd, B. Seabourne, R. Frencha, G. Heinf, T. J. Marting, B. Beecherc,j, T. Schwarzacherh and P. Heslop-Harrisonh

a USDA-ARS, 314 Biochemistry Hall, East Campus, Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583
b Dep. of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR 97331
c Dep. of Agronomy and Horticulture, Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583
d USDA-ARS, Cereal Disease Lab., Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108
e USDA-ARS, Hard Winter Wheat Quality Lab., Manhattan, KS 66502
f Panhandle Research and Extension Center, Univ. of Nebraska, Scottsbluff, NE 69361
g Western Kansas Agricultural Research Center, Kansas State Univ., Hays, KS 67601
h Dep. of Biology, Univ. of Leicester, Leicester, UK LE1 7RH
i current address: Dep. of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX 77843
j current address: USDA-ARS, Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA 99164

* Corresponding author (bob.graybosch@ars.usda.gov ).

ABSTRACT

‘Mace’ (Reg. No. CV-1027, PI 651043) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the USDA-ARS and the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and released in December 2007. Mace was selected from the cross Yuma//PI 372129/3/CO850034/4/4*Yuma/5/(KS91H184/Arlin S//KS91HW29/3/NE89526). Mace primarily was released for its resistance to Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and adaptation to rainfed and irrigated wheat production systems in Nebraska and adjacent areas in the northern Great Plains. Mace was derived from a head selection made from a heterogeneous, in terms of field resistance to WSMV, F5 line. Resistance to WSMV is conditioned by the Wsm-1 gene, located on an introgressed chromosome arm from Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey [Agropyron intermedium (Horst.) Beauv.] present as a 4DL.4AgS chromosomal translocation. Mace was tested under the experimental designation N02Y5117.

Abbreviations: NRPN, Northern Regional Performance Nursery • PCR, polymerase chain reaction • WSBMV, Wheat soilborne mosaic virus • WSMV, Wheat streak mosaic virus

[Full Text of Graybosch et al.] [Reprint (PDF) Version of Graybosch et al.]


Abstract 11 of 23 back

CULTIVARS

‘Hycrest II’, a New Crested Wheatgrass Cultivar with Improved Seedling Establishment

K. B. Jensen*, S. R. Larson, B. L. Waldron and J. G. Robins

USDA-ARS, Forage and Range Research Lab., 695 North 1100 East, Logan, UT 84322-6300. Mention of a trademark, proprietary product, or vendor does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of the product by the USDA or Utah State University

* Corresponding author (kevin.jensen@ars.usda.gov ).

ABSTRACT

‘Hycrest II’ crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum L.) (Reg. No. CV-31, PI 653685) was released by the USDA-ARS and the Utah State Agricultural Experiment Station and was developed for reseeding disturbed rangelands dominated by annual weeds as a result of severe disturbance, frequent wild fires, and soil erosion. Hycrest II is one of the original parents to the cultivar Hycrest and originated by intercrossing 10 induced tetraploid plants of ‘Fairway’ crested wheatgrass. Selection emphasis in Hycrest II was on seedling establishment on disturbed rangelands. When planted at a rate of 1 pure live seed cm–1, Hycrest II had more seedlings per unit area during the establishment year than Hycrest at Blue Creek, UT, Green Canyon, UT, Mandan, ND, Miles City, MT, Dugway, UT, and Stone, ID. At Dugway, UT, Hycrest II had more seedlings per unit area than ‘CD II’ crested wheatgrass. Foundation seed of Hycrest II is available through the Utah Crop Improvement Association.

Abbreviations: AMOVA, analysis of molecular variance

[Full Text of Jensen et al.] [Reprint (PDF) Version of Jensen et al.]


Abstract 12 of 23 back

CULTIVARS

‘Vavilov II’, a New Siberian Wheatgrass Cultivar with Improved Persistence and Establishment on Rangelands

Kevin B. Jensena,*, Anthony J. Palazzob, Blair L. Waldrona, Joseph G. Robinsa, B. Shaun Bushmana, Douglas A. Johnsona and Dan G. Oglec

a USDA-ARS, Forage and Range Research Lab., 695 North 1100 East, Logan, UT 84322-6300
b U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineering Research and Development Center, Hanover, NH 03755
c USDA-NRCS, 9173 W. Barnes Dr., Suite C, Boise, ID 83709. Mention of a trademark, proprietary product, or vendor does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of the product by the USDA or Utah State University

* Corresponding author (kevin.jensen@ars.usda.gov ).

ABSTRACT

‘Vavilov II’ Siberian wheatgrass [Agropyron fragile (Roth) Candargy] (Reg. No. CV-30, PI 653686) was released by the USDA-ARS, the U.S. Army-Engineer Research and Development Center, Utah Agricultural Experiment Station, and the USDA-NRCS. Vavilov II was developed for reseeding sandy soils on disturbed rangelands dominated by annual weeds as a result of severe disturbance, frequent fires, and soil erosion. Selection emphasis in Vavilov II was on seedling establishment and stand persistence. During the establishment year, Vavilov II had increased numbers of seedlings per unit area (m2) using a frequency grid than ‘Vavilov’ at Yakima, WA, Fillmore, UT, Dugway, UT, and Curlew Valley, ID. Vavilov II was more persistent than Vavilov at Yakima, WA, Fillmore, UT, Curlew Valley, ID, and Malta, ID. Foundation seed of Vavilov II is available through the Utah Crop Improvement Association and the University of Idaho Foundation Seed Program.

Abbreviations: AFLP, amplified fragment length polymorphism • DMY, dry matter yield • NPGS, National Plant Germplasm System • PAUP, phylogenetic analysis using parsimony • UPGMA, unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean

[Full Text of Jensen et al.] [Reprint (PDF) Version of Jensen et al.]


Abstract 13 of 23 back

CULTIVARS

Registration of ‘Pristine’ Zoysiagrass

B. T. Scullya,*, R. T. Nagatab,*, R. H. Cherryb, L. E. Trenholmc and J. B. Unruhd

a USDA-ARS, Crop Protection and Management Research Unit, P.O. Box 748., Tifton, GA, 31793
b Everglades REC-IFAS, Univ. of Florida, Box 8003, Belle Glade, FL 33430
c Dep. of Environmental Horticulture, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611
d West Florida REC-IFAS, Univ. of Florida, Milton, FL 32583. This research was supported by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Foundation Seed Producers, Inc., and sponsored by Environmental Turf, Inc., Avon Park, FL

* Corresponding authors (brian.scully@ars.usda.gov ; rtnagata@ifas.ufl.edu ).

ABSTRACT

‘Pristine’ (Reg. No. CV-251, PI 652481) zoysiagrass [Zoysia japonica Stued. by Zoysia tenuifolia (L.) Merr.] was developed by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station at the Everglades Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Belle Glade, FL, and initially approved for release in 2005. This zoysiagrass variety originated as an open-pollinated progeny from ‘Emerald’ and tested in Florida under experimental designation BA-305. Pristine was selected for improved agronomic and horticultural traits, including reduced production of seed heads, finer leaf texture, darker leaf color, and a faster rate of ground coverage and crop establishment in southern Florida. In comparison to the standard variety Emerald, Pristine exhibited a 46% average annual reduction in seed-head production and generally produced seed heads with an attenuated morphology. It also produced darker green leaves that were 21% shorter and 19% narrower than Emerald, which visually conferred upon Pristine a more refined canopy structure and texture. In addition, ground coverage and crop establishment was significantly faster for Pristine at two of the three test sites. Pristine is primarily intended for use in the Florida specialty market for zoysiagrass.

[Full Text of Scully et al.] [Reprint (PDF) Version of Scully et al.]


Abstract 14 of 23 back

GERMPLASM

Registration of Arkot 9623 and Arkot 9625 Germplasm Lines of Cotton

Fred M. Bourlanda,* and Don Jonesb

a Univ. of Arkansas Division of Agriculture Northeast Research and Extension Center, P.O. Box 48, Keiser, AR 72351
b Cotton Incorporated, 6399 Weston Pkwy., Cary, NC 27513

* Corresponding author (bourland@uark.edu ).

ABSTRACT

Arkot 9623 (Reg. No. GP-908, PI 651858) and Arkot 9625 (Reg. No. GP-909, PI 651859) are noncommercial breeding lines of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) released by the Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station in January 2008. Both lines were derived from 1996 crosses using one common parent, Arkot 8712. The second parent of Arkot 9623 was DES 119 N Sm ne. The other parent of Arkot 9625 was ST 474. The lines were evaluated in 16 replicated tests in Arkansas from 2003 to 2006. Lint yields, lint percentage, and seed produced per area for each line were equal to two check cultivars. Both lines are early maturing, with Arkot 9625 significantly earlier than Arkot 9623 and the short-season cultivar SG 105, and Arkot 9623 equal to SG 105. Yield components of Arkot 9623 were similar to the checks, but Arkot 9625 produced larger seed with more lint per seed. Compared with check cultivars, Arkot 9623 fiber length was shorter and strength of both lines was weaker. Leaf pubescence and bract trichome density of the two lines were intermediate between the smooth-leaf and hairy-leaf check cultivars. Compared with the checks, both lines expressed improved resistance to bacterial blight [caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum (Smith) Dye], Fusarium wilt [caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlect. F. sp. vasinfectum (Atk.) Snyd. & Hans.], root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949], and a seedling disease pathogen. The relative yield, maturity, and line-specific host plant resistance traits make these lines valuable to cotton breeding programs.

[Full Text of Bourland and Jones] [Reprint (PDF) Version of Bourland and Jones]


Abstract 15 of 23 back

GERMPLASM

Registration of PD 99035 Germplasm Line of Cotton

B. T. Campbella,*, O. L. Mayb, D. S. Howlec and D. C. Jonesd

a USDA-ARS Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant Research Center, 2611 W. Lucas St., Florence, SC 29501
b Monsanto Company, 381 William Gibbs Rd., Tifton, GA 31794
c Clemson Univ. Regulatory and Public Service Programs, 511 Westinghouse Rd., Pendleton, SC 29670
d Cotton Incorporated, 6399 Weston Pkwy., Cary, NC 27513

* Corresponding author (todd.campbell@ars.usda.gov ).

ABSTRACT

PD 99035 (Reg. No. GP-902, PI 653111) is a noncommercial breeding line of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) jointly released by the USDA-ARS, the Clemson University Experiment Station, and Cotton Incorporated in 2007. PD 99035 was selected from a cross of PD 93043 and ‘DPL 5409’. PD 99035 possesses outstanding fiber-quality properties, significantly better than several commercial cultivars. Specifically, PD 99035 possesses outstanding fiber strength and length potential, while also maintaining micronaire values lower than commercial cultivars. PD 99035 possesses mid- to late maturity and produces lint yield similar to or just below commercial cultivars. PD 99035 is best adapted within the southeastern United States, although our data also suggest it has broad adaptation across the U.S. Upland cotton production region. The combination of longer fiber length, stronger fiber strength, lower micronaire, and acceptable lint yield potential makes PD 99035 a valuable genetic resource to cotton breeding programs.

Abbreviations: RBTN, Regional Breeders Testing Network • SC OVT, South Carolina Official Variety Trial

[Full Text of Campbell et al.] [Reprint (PDF) Version of Campbell et al.]


Abstract 16 of 23 back

GERMPLASM

Registration of Five Exotic Germplasm Lines of Cotton Derived from Multiple Crosses among Gossypium Tetraploid Species

L. Zeng* and W.R. Meredith, Jr.

USDA-ARS, Crop Genetics and Production Unit, Delta Research Center, Stoneville, MS 38776. Mention of trade name or commercial product in this article is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture

* Corresponding author (linghe.zeng@ars.usda.gov ).

ABSTRACT

Species polycross (SP) cotton germplasm was developed from multiple crosses among Gossypium tetraploid species. SP156 (Reg. No. GP-903, PI 654087), SP177 (Reg. No. GP-904, PI 654088), SP179 (Reg. No. GP-905, PI 654089), SP205 (Reg. No. GP-906, PI 654090), and SP225 (Reg. No. GP-907, PI 654091) were released by the USDA-ARS for their highly desirable combinations of yield, yield components, and fiber properties. The SP lines were tested for yield and fiber quality in 2005, 2006, and 2007 at six year-locations. SP179 and SP225 averaged 1221 and 1348 kg ha–1, respectively, for yield in three years' trials compared with 1359 kg ha–1 for ‘Deltapine 555BR’. Fiber bundle strength of these two lines is 233 and 228 kN m kg–1, respectively, compared with 227 kN m kg–1 for ‘FiberMax 960B2R’ (FM960B2R). Yields of SP156, SP177, and SP205 are at least 7% higher than the average, 965 kg ha–1, of FM960B2R and ‘Phytogen 72’ (PHY72). Strength of SP156, SP177, and SP205 is 241, 238, and 236 kN m kg–1, respectively, compared with 241 kN m kg–1, the average of FM960B2R and PHY72. Span length and short fiber content in these lines are also comparable to FM960B2R and PHY72.

Abbreviations: AFIS, Automated Fiber Information System • DP555BR, ‘Deltapine 555BR’ • FM960B2R, ‘FiberMax 960B2R’ • G, genotype • L, location • PHY72, ‘Phytogen 72’ • PM2167R, ‘Paymaster 2167R’ • SP, species polycross • ST4892BR, ‘Stoneville 4892BR’ • Y, year

[Full Text of Zeng and Meredith] [Reprint (PDF) Version of Zeng and Meredith]


Abstract 17 of 23 back

GERMPLASM

Registration of Eight Extra-Long Staple Upland Cotton Germplasm Lines

C. W. Smitha,*, S. Haguea, P. S. Thaxtonb, E. Hequetc and D. Jonesd

a Dep. of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M Univ., 370 Olsen Blvd., College Station, TX 77843
b Delta Research and Extension Center, 82 Stoneville Rd., P.O. Box 197, Stoneville, MS 38776
c International Textile Research Center, Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX
d Cotton Incorporated, 6399 Weston Pkwy., Cary, NC 27513

* Corresponding author (cwsmith@tamu.edu ).

ABSTRACT

Eight extra-long staple (ELS) upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm lines, TAM A106-15 ELS (Reg. No. GP-894, PI 654359), TAM A106-16 ELS (Reg. No. GP-895, PI 654360), TAM B147-21 ELS (Reg. No. GP-896, PI 654361), TAM B182-33 ELS (Reg. No. GP-897, PI 654362), TAM C66-16 ELS (Reg. No. GP-898, PI 654363), TAM C66-26 ELS (Reg. No. GP-899, PI 654364), TAM C147-42 ELS (Reg. No. GP-900, PI 654365), and TAM C155-22 ELS (Reg. No. GP-901, PI 654366), were developed by the Cotton Improvement Laboratory, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas AgriLife Research (Texas A&M University, College Station), and released in 2008 as part of an ongoing effort to create germplasm with combinations of improved fiber quality parameters, especially upper half mean (UHM) length and fiber bundle strength. All ELS lines exhibited high volume instrument (HVI) UHM fiber length greater than 32.0 mm, which is the minimum UHM to be classified as ELS upland according to Cotton Incorporated. Seven of the eight lines equaled or exceeded the minimum UHM length of 34.8 mm for pima (G. barbadense L.) in the USDA 2007 pima loan schedule in at least one performance trial. Fiber bundle strengths of the eight lines were equal to or higher than ‘Fibermax 832’.

Abbreviations: ELS, extra-long staple • HVI, high volume instrument • UHM, upper half mean • UI, uniformity index

[Full Text of Smith et al.] [Reprint (PDF) Version of Smith et al.]


Abstract 18 of 23 back

GERMPLASM

Registration of Striga-Resistant and Drought-Tolerant Tropical Early Maize Populations TZE-W Pop DT STR C4 and TZE-Y Pop DT STR C4

B. Badu-Aprakua,* and C. G. Yalloub

a IITA-Maize Breeding, c/o L.W. Lambourn & Co., Carolyn House, 26 Dingwall Rd., Croydon CR9 3EE, UK
b INRAB-Plant Breeding

* Corresponding author (b.badu-apraku@cgiar.org ).

ABSTRACT

Two maize (Zea mays L.) populations, TZE-W Pop DT STR C4 (Reg. No. GP-574, PI 654407), white- grained, flint/dent, and TZE-Y Pop DT STR C4 (Reg. No. GP-575, PI 654408), yellow-grained, flint/dent with drought tolerance and moderate levels of resistance to the flowering parasitic witchweed, Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth, were developed at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). The two breeding populations were released to national maize programs in west and central Africa as source germplasm in 2004 for the development of Striga-resistant synthetic varieties, parental inbred lines, and hybrids. The populations were released for their superior grain yield under Striga-infested and noninfested conditions. They also have good levels of resistance to maize streak virus, tropical lowland rust (incited by Puccinia polysora Underw.), and blight [caused by Bipolaris maydis (Nisikado & Miyake) Shoemaker]. In multilocation trials in Benin Republic and Nigeria, 2006 and 2007, TZE-W Pop STR C4 outyielded the Striga-susceptible check TZE Comp. 4 by 44% under Striga infestation and 12% when noninfested. Under the same conditions, the increased yield for TZE-Y Pop DT STR C4 was 42% (Striga infested) and 16% (noninfested). The check variety TZE Comp. 4 suffered the highest Striga damage and supported the highest number of emerged Striga plants when Striga infested.

Abbreviations: ASI, anthesis-to-silking interval • DAP, days after planting • EPP, number of ears per plant • EV, experimental variety • IITA, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture • RSVT-Early • Regional Striga Variety Trial-Early • WAP, weeks after planting • WCA, west and central Africa • WECAMAN, West and Central Africa Collaborative Maize Research Network

[Full Text of Badu-Apraku and Yallou] [Reprint (PDF) Version of Badu-Apraku and Yallou]


Abstract 19 of 23 back

GERMPLASM

Registration of Soybean Germplasm SS93-6012 and SS93-6181 Resistant to Phomopsis Seed Decay

M. S. Pathana, K. M. Clarka, J. A. Wratherb, G. L. Sciumbatoc, J. G. Shannonb, H. T. Nguyena and D. A. Slepera,*

a Division of Plant Sciences, Univ. of Missouri–Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211
b Division of Plant Sciences, Univ. of Missouri–Delta Center, P.O. Box 160, Portageville, MO 63873
c Delta Research and Extension Center, Mississippi State Univ., Stoneville, MS 38776

* Corresponding author (sleperd@missouri.edu ).

ABSTRACT

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] germplasm SS93-6012 (Reg. No. GP-362, PI 652442) and SS93-6181 (Reg. No. GP-363, PI 652443) were developed and released by the University of Missouri–Columbia in January 2006 as resistant to Phomopsis seed decay (PSD), caused by Phomopsis spp. Both lines were developed from a cross between MO/PSD-0259 (PI562694) (PSD-resistant MGIV germplasm) and ‘Asgrow 3834’ (PSD-susceptible MGIII cultivar) made in 1990 at the Bradford Research and Extension Center of the University of Missouri, Columbia, MO. The lines were composited in the F5 generation and evaluated for yield and Phomopsis seed decay infection. These lines are highly resistant to Phomopsis spp. SS93-6012 has a relative maturity of 4.2, purple flowers, gray pubescence, an indeterminate growth habit, tan pods at maturity, yellow color seeds, buff hila, and seed weight of ~14 g per 100 seeds. SS93-6181 has a relative maturity of 4.0, purple flowers, tawny pubescence, an indeterminate growth habit, tan pods at maturity, yellow color seeds, imperfect black hila, and seed weight of ~16 g per 100 seeds. So far, PSD-resistant commercial soybean cultivars are not available, and these two lines may be used for development of PSD-resistant high-yielding soybean cultivars.

Abbreviations: BREC, Bradford Research and Extension Center • ESPS, early soybean production system • PI, Plant introduction • PSD, Phomopsis seed decay

[Full Text of Pathan et al.] [Reprint (PDF) Version of Pathan et al.]


Abstract 20 of 23 back

GERMPLASM

Registration of S99-2281 Soybean Germplasm Line with Resistance to Frogeye Leaf Spot and Three Nematode Species

J. Grover Shannona,*, Jeong-Dong Leea, J. Allen Wrathera, David A. Sleperb, M. A. Rouf Mianc, Jason P. Bondd and Robert T. Robbinse

a Division of Plant Sciences, Univ. of Missouri-Delta Center, P.O. Box 160, Portageville, MO 63873
b Division of Plant Sciences, 271-F Life Sciences Center, Univ. of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211
c USDA-ARS, ORADC, Ohio State Univ., 107A Williams Hall, 1680 Madison Ave, Wooster, OH 44691
d Dep. of Plant Soils and General Agriculture, Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL 62901
e Univ. of Arkansas, 2501 N Young Ave, Fayetteville, AR 72704

* Corresponding author (shannong@missouri.edu ).

ABSTRACT

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] germplasm line S99-2281 (Reg. No. GP-361, PI 654356) was developed at the University of Missouri–Delta Center and released by the University of Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station. It is an F4 plant selection composited in the F5 generation from the cross of N90-516 x S92-1069. S99-2281 is a productive, early group V (relative maturity 5.2) soybean line with broad resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) HG types (races), southern root knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood], and reniform nematode [Rotylenchulus reniformis (Linford and Oliveira)]. It also carries the Rcs3 gene for resistance to all known races of frogeye leaf spot, caused by Cercospora sojina K. Hara. In combined analyses over 3 yr, S99-2281 yielded 3 and 7% more than ‘Manokin’ in southeast Missouri trials (15 tests) and in Uniform Group IVs Tests–Southern States (39 tests), respectively. It will be useful as an elite parent in soybean breeding programs to develop productive soybean cultivars with broad resistance to frogeye leaf spot and resistance to multiple nematode species.

Abbreviations: indel, insertion deletion • RKN, root knot nematode • SCN, soybean cyst nematode • SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism • SSR, simple sequence repeats

[Full Text of Shannon et al.] [Reprint (PDF) Version of Shannon et al.]


Abstract 21 of 23 back

GERMPLASM

Breeding for Reduced Post-Harvest Seed Dormancy in Switchgrass: Registration of TEM-LoDorm Switchgrass Germplasm

Byron L. Bursona,*, Charles R. Tischlerb and William R. Ocumpaughc

a USDA-ARS, Crop Germplasm Research Unit, 430 Heep Center, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX 77843-2474
b USDA-ARS, Grassland, Soil, and Water Res. Lab., 808 E. Blackland Rd., Temple, TX 76502
c Texas Agric. Exp. Stn., 3507 Hwy. 59E, Beeville, TX 78102

* Corresponding author (byron.burson@ars.usda.gov ).

ABSTRACT

The switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) germplasm line TEM-LoDorm (Reg. No. GP-98, PI 636468) was developed by the USDA-ARS in cooperation with the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station and was released in May 2007. TEM-LoDorm has reduced post-harvest seed dormancy and was developed to provide breeders with a germplasm source to improve germination and stand establishment. The cultivar Alamo was used as a base population, and TEM-LoDorm was developed using four cycles of recurrent selection. During the first three cycles, recently harvested seed from about 200 entries were germinated to evaluate immediacy of germination. Seedlings from seed that germinated within 3 to 14 d were used to establish a polycross nursery to produce seed for the next cycle of selection. Twenty-four plants in the cycle 3 crossing block that produced seed with the most rapid germination rate were dug and used to establish cycle 4 crossing blocks. Over a 2-yr period, germination of recently harvested seed from most of these 24 plants was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than seed from unselected Alamo; some plants were 10 or more times higher than Alamo. Equal quantities of seed from these 24 plants were bulked to constitute TEM-LoDorm germplasm.

Abbreviations: PPFD, photosynthetic photon flux density

[Full Text of Burson et al.] [Reprint (PDF) Version of Burson et al.]


Abstract 22 of 23 back

GERMPLASM

Registration of Spring Wheat Germplasm TC 67 Resistant to Fusarium Head Blight

Wenguang Cao, George Fedak*, Ken Armstrong, Allen Xue and Marc E. Savard

Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Center, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 960 Carlling Ave., Ottawa, ON Canada K1A 0C6

* Corresponding author (fedakga@agr.gc.ca ).

ABSTRACT

TC 67 red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (Reg. No. GP-856, PI 654367) was developed at the Cereal and Oilseed Research Center, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. TC 67 was derived from the cross Crocus*2/PI343447 (T. timopheevii Zhuk). A segregating population of 1500 BC1F2 plants was established and advanced to F7, using single seed descent. One hundred lines were selected from 535 BC1F7 lines, on the basis of plant fertility and agronomic traits, and evaluated for reaction to Fusarium head blight (FHB; caused by Fusarium graminearum) for two seasons. TC 67 had high levels of resistance to FHB that was comparable to that of ‘Sumai 3’, the most FHB resistant wheat available, based on point inoculation. The resistance of TC 67 to FHB was further evaluated in replicated field trials, compared with two resistant wheat lines, Sumai 3 and ‘HY 644’, in a FHB disease nursery in 2003 and 2004. The results show that TC 67 was significantly better than HY 644 in FHB incidence, severity, and Fusarium-damaged kernels and was comparable to Sumai 3 in deoxynivalenol content in the grain.

Abbreviations: DON, deoxynivalenol • FHB, Fusarium head blight • SSD, single seed descent

[Full Text of Cao et al.] [Reprint (PDF) Version of Cao et al.]


Abstract 23 of 23 back

PARENTAL LINES

Development of Genetically Broad-based Inbred Lines of Maize for Early-Maturing (70–80RM) Hybrids

M. J. Carena* and D. W. Wanner

Corn Breeding and Genetics, Dep. of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND 58105-5051. The development of early maturing yellow-dent lines is supported by North Dakota State Board of Agricultural Research and Education (SBARE), the North Dakota Corn Growers Association, and North the Dakota Corn Council Utilization

* Corresponding author (marcelo.carena@ndsu.edu ).

ABSTRACT

ND2005 (Reg. No. PL-354, PI 650885) and ND2006 (Reg. No. PL-355, PI 650886) are two new maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines developed for use as parents for 70-80 relative maturity (RM) hybrids by the North Dakota State University maize breeding program and released by the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station in February 2007. ND2005 originated from the improved breeding population NDSM(M)C5 through a modification of pedigree selection including six years of early and late generation testing across 64 environments. ND2006 derived from the improved breeding population NDSBF(LM)C7(HGR)C4 through pedigree selection including five years of early and late generation testing across 31 environments. On the basis of their grain moisture at harvest, ND2005 and ND2006 were released as parents for development of very early maturing hybrids (<80RM). In addition to early maturity, ND2005 produced hybrids with above-average test weight and lodging resistance. ND2006 produced hybrids with above-average grain protein content. ND2005 and ND2006 combined best with Iodent and LH82 derived testers. ND2005 also combined well with early B14 types across eastern and western North Dakota.

Abbreviations: NDSU, North Dakota State University • RM, relative maturity

[Full Text of Carena and Wanner] [Reprint (PDF) Version of Carena and Wanner]

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Cover

Current Issue:
January-February 2009
 
 
Selected Abstracts 
Returned: 32 citations and abstracts. Click on down arrow or scroll to see abstracts.

down H. Arnold Bruns
A Survey of Factors Involved in Crop Maturity
Agron. J. 101: 60-66.

down Nirit Bernstein, David Chaimovitch, and Nativ Dudai
Effect of Irrigation with Secondary Treated Effluent on Essential Oil, Antioxidant Activity, and Phenolic Compounds in Oregano and Rosemary
Agron. J. 101: 1-10.

down Claudia Arrieta, Philip Busey, and Samira H. Daroub
Goosegrass and Bermudagrass Competition under Compaction
Agron. J. 101: 11-16.

down L. Barton, G. G. Y. Wan, R. P. Buck, and T. D. Colmer
Nitrogen Increases Evapotranspiration and Growth of a Warm-Season Turfgrass
Agron. J. 101: 17-24.

down L. Barton, G. G. Y. Wan, R. P. Buck, and T. D. Colmer
Effectiveness of Cultural Thatch-Mat Controls for Young and Mature Kikuyu Turfgrass
Agron. J. 101: 67-74.

down Christian M. Baldwin, Haibo Liu, Lambert B. McCarty, Hong Luo, and Joe E. Toler
Nitrogen and Plant Growth Regulator Influence on ‘Champion’ Bermudagrass Putting Green under Reduced Sunlight
Agron. J. 101: 75-81.

down Nathan B. O'Berry, Joel C. Faircloth, Michael A. Jones, David A. Herbert, Jr., Azenegashe O. Abaye, Thomas E. McKemie, and Cavell Brownie
Differential Responses of Cotton Cultivars when Applying Mepiquat Pentaborate
Agron. J. 101: 25-31.

down Shawn P. Conley, Palle Pedersen, and Ellsworth P. Christmas
Main-Stem Node Removal Effect on Soybean Seed Yield and Composition
Agron. J. 101: 120-123.

down Jason L. De Bruin, and Palle Pedersen
Growth, Yield, and Yield Component Changes among Old and New Soybean Cultivars
Agron. J. 101: 124-130.

down Andrew P. Robinson, Shawn P. Conley, Jeffrey J. Volenec, and Judith B. Santini
Analysis of High Yielding, Early-Planted Soybean in Indiana
Agron. J. 101: 131-139.

down Michael E. Copas, Alvin J. Bussan, Michael J. Drilias, and Richard P. Wolkowski
Potato Yield and Quality Response to Subsoil Tillage and Compaction
Agron. J. 101: 82-90.

down Alpha Y. Kamara, Friday Ekeleme, David Chikoye, and Lucky O. Omoigui
Planting Date and Cultivar Effects on Grain Yield in Dryland Corn Production
Agron. J. 101: 91-98.

down P. J. Hodgen, R. B. Ferguson, J. F. Shanahan, and J. S. Schepers
Uptake of Point Source Depleted 15N Fertilizer by Neighboring Corn Plants
Agron. J. 101: 99-105.

down X. M. Fan, Y. M. Zhang, W. H. Yao, H. M. Chen, J. Tan, C. X. Xu, X. L. Han, L. M. Luo, and M. S. Kang
Classifying Maize Inbred Lines into Heterotic Groups using a Factorial Mating Design
Agron. J. 101: 106-112.

down P. A. Counce, K. B. Watkins, K. R. Brye, and T. J. Siebenmorgen
A Model to Predict Safe Stages of Development for Rice Field Draining and Field Tests of the Model Predictions in the Arkansas Grand Prairie
Agron. J. 101: 113-119.

down Carlos A. C. Crusciol, and Rogério P. Soratto
Nitrogen Supply for Cover Crops and Effects on Peanut Grown in Succession under a No-Till System
Agron. J. 101: 41-46.

down Nathan S. Boyd, Eric B. Brennan, Richard F. Smith, and Ron Yokota
Effect of Seeding Rate and Planting Arrangement on Rye Cover Crop and Weed Growth
Agron. J. 101: 47-51.

down J. C. Burns, M. G. Wagger, and D. S. Fisher
Animal and Pasture Productivity of ‘Coastal’ and ‘Tifton 44’ Bermudagrass at Three Nitrogen Rates and Associated Soil Nitrogen Status
Agron. J. 101: 32-40.

down R. L. Baumhardt, R. C. Schwartz, L. W. Greene, and J. C. MacDonald
Cattle Gain and Crop Yield for a Dryland Wheat-Sorghum-Fallow Rotation
Agron. J. 101: 150-158.

down Zhenling Cui, Fusuo Zhang, Zhengxia Dou, Miao Yuxin, Qinping Sun, Xinping Chen, Junliang Li, Youliang Ye, Zhiping Yang, Qiang Zhang, Chunsheng Liu, and Shaomin Huang
Regional Evaluation of Critical Nitrogen Concentrations in Winter Wheat Production of the North China Plain
Agron. J. 101: 159-166.

down Gregg R. Sanford, Amy R. Cook, Josh L. Posner, Janet L. Hedtcke, John A. Hall, and Jon O. Baldock
Linking Wisconsin Dairy and Grain Farms via Manure Transfer for Corn Production
Agron. J. 101: 167-174.

down Edgar A. Po, Sieglinde S. Snapp, and Alexandra Kravchenko
Rotational and Cover Crop Determinants of Soil Structural Stability and Carbon in a Potato System
Agron. J. 101: 175-183.

down D. M. Burner, D. H. Pote, and D. P. Belesky
Effect of Loblolly Pine Root Pruning on Alley Cropped Herbage Production and Tree Growth
Agron. J. 101: 184-192.

down Jeffrey T. Baker, Scott Van Pelt, Dennis C. Gitz, Paxton Payton, Robert Joseph Lascano, and Bobbie McMichael
Canopy Gas Exchange Measurements of Cotton in an Open System
Agron. J. 101: 52-59.

down Axel Garcia y Garcia, Larry C. Guerra, and Gerrit Hoogenboom
Impact of Planting Date and Hybrid on Early Growth of Sweet Corn
Agron. J. 101: 193-200.

down Graig Reicks, Howard J. Woodard, and Anthony Bly
Improving the Fermentation Characteristics of Corn through Agronomic and Processing Practices
Agron. J. 101: 201-206.

down Judith Nyiraneza, Martin H. Chantigny, Adrien N'Dayegamiye, and Marc R. Laverdière
Dairy Cattle Manure Improves Soil Productivity in Low Residue Rotation Systems
Agron. J. 101: 207-214.

down B. R. Ball Coelho, R. C. Roy, A. J. Bruin, A. More, and P. White
Zonejection: Conservation Tillage Manure Nutrient Delivery System
Agron. J. 101: 215-225.

down Rachid Drissi, Jean-Pascal Goutouly, Dominique Forget, and Jean-Pierre Gaudillere
Nondestructive Measurement of Grapevine Leaf Area by Ground Normalized Difference Vegetation Index
Agron. J. 101: 226-231.

down Darrin F. Roberts, Viacheslav I. Adamchuk, John F. Shanahan, Richard B. Ferguson, and James S. Schepers
Optimization of Crop Canopy Sensor Placement for Measuring Nitrogen Status in Corn
Agron. J. 101: 140-149.

down Dennis C. Gitz, and Jeffrey T. Baker
Methods for Creating Stomatal Impressions Directly onto Archivable Slides
Agron. J. 101: 232-236.

down Fred E. Below, Kateri A. Duncan, Martin Uribelarrea, and Thomas B. Ruyle
Occurrence and Proposed Cause of Hollow Husk in Maize
Agron. J. 101: 237-242.


Abstract 1 of 32 back

REVIEW & INTERPRETATION

A Survey of Factors Involved in Crop Maturity

H. Arnold Bruns*

USDA-ARS, Crop Genetics and Production Research Unit, Box 345, Stoneville, MS 38776. Trade names are used in this publication solely for the purpose of providing specific information. Mention of a trade name, proprietary product, or specific equipment does not constitute a guarantee or warranty by the USDA-ARS and does not imply approval of the named product to the exclusion of other similar products

* Corresponding author (arnold.bruns@ars.usda.gov ).

The time necessary for crops to successfully complete reproduction is species and environment dependent. Lifecycles can be completed in a few weeks or take several years depending on the plant species. Crop development is divided into phenophases that are affected primarily by light and temperature changes, interacting with phytohormones. Some species are influenced more by light and others by temperature. This review focuses on factors that influence maturation in several important agronomic crops.

Abbreviations: DNP, day-neutral plant • GDD, growing degree day • GDU, growing degree unit • LDP, long-day plant • MG, maturity group • Pfr, phytochrome far-red • Pr, phytochrome red • SDP, short-day plant

All rights reserved. No part of this periodical may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Received for publication August 13, 2007.

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Abstract 2 of 32 back

AROMATIC PLANTS

Effect of Irrigation with Secondary Treated Effluent on Essential Oil, Antioxidant Activity, and Phenolic Compounds in Oregano and Rosemary

Nirit Bernsteina, David Chaimovitchb and Nativ Dudaib,*

a Institute of Soil Water and Environmental Science, Volcani Center, POB 6, Bet-Dagan, 50-250, Israel
b Aromatic, Medicinal and Spice Crops, ARO, Newe Ya'ar Research Center, P.O. Box 1021, Ramat Yishay 30095, Israel

* Corresponding author (nativdud@agri.gov.il ).

Shortage of water throughout the world dictates utilization of marginal water for irrigation. Treated urban wastewater is a common alternative water source for irrigation in arid and semiarid regions. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of irrigation with secondary-treated effluent on plant development, essential oil yield, antioxidant activity and selected antioxidant phenolic compounds in two commercial cultivars of the aromatic species, oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). The applied treated effluent contained higher levels of Na, Cl, HCO3,–1 P, K, NH4+1, NO3–1, Ca+Mg, B, Mn, and Fe than the local potable water used as control, and were characterized by higher values of electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and sodium absorption ratio (SAR). Since effluent effects on plants can become apparent only following several years of exposure, the plants were exposed to the water treatments for 3 yr. Despite the differences in water quality, the effluent did not affect yield quantity and quality in either crop. Plant morphological development, biomass production, percent dry leaves of the total biomass, quantity and composition of the essential oil produced, antioxidant activity, and contents of selected antioxidant-phenolic compounds were not affected by irrigation with treated effluent compared with potable water. Our results demonstrate that both oregano and rosemary are suitable as industrial crops for essential oil and antioxidant production under irrigation with secondary-treated municipal effluent because their yield quantity and quality were not affected.

Abbreviations: DM, dry mass • EC, electrical conductivity • ROS, reactive oxygen species • SAR, sodium absorption ratio

All rights reserved. No part of this periodical may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Received for publication April 17, 2007.

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Abstract 3 of 32 back

TURFGRASS

Goosegrass and Bermudagrass Competition under Compaction

Claudia Arrietaa, Philip Buseyb,* and Samira H. Daroubc

a 12148 Rist Canyon Rd., Bellvue, CO 80512
b Fort Lauderdale Res. Educ. Ctr., Univ. Florida, 3205 College Ave., Davie, FL 33314
c Everglades Res. Educ. Ctr. and Soil and Water Sci. Dep., Univ. Florida, 3200 E. Palm Beach Rd., Belle Glade, FL 33430

* Corresponding author (pbusey@turfgrass.com ).

Goosegrass (Eleusine indica L.) is a serious weed in trafficked areas of bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) golf and sports turf. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil compaction and canopy cover as determinants of goosegrass competition in bermudagrass turf in sand soil. Goosegrass cover, plant density, and soil penetration resistance (SPR) were measured in traffic and no-traffic plots in bermudagrass golf course tees and sports field foul areas. Goosegrass plant density and cover were larger in traffic plots compared with no-traffic plots. Soil penetration resistance increased only at 5.0 cm depth due to traffic, while other soil properties including bulk density measured in golf course tees showed no effect from traffic. Two experiments measured the effect of controlled soil compaction on root and shoot dry weight of goosegrass and bermudagrass in containers. The first experiment evaluated effects of three soil compaction levels (1.14, 1.24, 1.33 g cm–3 bulk density) on goosegrass and bermudagrass grown separately. The second experiment evaluated effects on the two species grown together in competition, from two soil compaction levels (1.07 and 1.26 g cm–3 bulk density), two N application rates (48 and 96 kg ha–1 mo–1), and two mowing heights (1.3 and 2.5 cm). The second experiment also evaluated goosegrass seedling emergence and tiller numbers. When species were grown separately, bermudagrass root and shoot dry weight showed no effect from soil compaction, but goosegrass root weight was reduced. When species were grown together, bermudagrass root weight was reduced by compaction, but goosegrass was not affected. Goosegrass seedling emergence was reduced 58% by high mowing height, which paralleled an increase in bermudagrass canopy cover based on shoot dry weight. Canopy cover, not compaction, more readily explained the competition and infestation of goosegrass in trafficked areas in sand soil.

Abbreviations: SPR, soil penetration resistance

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Received for publication August 20, 2007.

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Abstract 4 of 32 back

TURFGRASS

Nitrogen Increases Evapotranspiration and Growth of a Warm-Season Turfgrass

L. Barton*, G. G. Y. Wan, R. P. Buck and T. D. Colmer

School of Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009, Western Australia, Australia

* Corresponding author (lbarton@cyllene.uwa.edu.au ).

The effect of N fertilizer rate on Kikuyu turfgrass [Pennisetum clandestinum (Hochst. ex Chiov)] evapotranspiration was evaluated during two summers. Evapotranspiration was measured using weighing lysimeters (205 mm in diameter by 625 mm in length) inserted in turfgrass field plots (10 m2). The experiment was a randomized plot design with three replicates. Treatments included two turfgrass ages (established from 20 wk or 20-yr-old turfgrass) and three N application rates (0, 50, or 150 kg N ha–1 yr–1). Evapotranspiration ranged from 2.8 to 7.5 mm d–1 (or 56–81% of evaporative demand), and varied with daily evaporative demand, turfgrass age, and N fertilizer rate. The older turfgrass used more water than the younger turfgrass during both summers; while increasing the N application rate also increased evapotranspiration for both turfgrass types (younger turfgrass only in the second summer). Evapotranspiration was positively correlated with turfgrass growth (r2 = 0.74–0.80) and transpiring leaf area (r2 = 0.78). Older turfgrass at all N treatments, and the younger turfgrass receiving 150 kg N ha–1 yr–1, had adequate growth, color, and leaf N concentrations. Optimizing fertilizer applications such that the minimum N required to maintain turfgrass quality is applied, is an approach for decreasing water consumption by turfgrass.

Abbreviations: ET, evapotranspiration

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Received for publication March 13, 2008.

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Abstract 5 of 32 back

TURFGRASS

Effectiveness of Cultural Thatch-Mat Controls for Young and Mature Kikuyu Turfgrass

L. Barton*, G. G. Y. Wan, R. P. Buck and T. D. Colmer

School of Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, The Univ. of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy., Crawley 6009, Western Australia, Australia

* Corresponding author (lbarton@cyllene.uwa.edu.au ).

Excessive thatch and mat can be detrimental to turfgrass health and management. Mechanical and topdressing techniques to reduce accumulation of thatch and mat were evaluated in a 24-mo field study of kikuyu [Pennisetum clandestinum (Hochst. ex Chiov.)] turfgrass of two contrasting organic matter (OM) contents in the surface 50 mm of soil. Treatments included two kikuyugrass ages (established from 20 wk or 20-yr-old kikuyugrass) and five renovation techniques (none, verticutting, coring, topdressing with sand, coring + topdressing). The renovation techniques varied in effectiveness depending on the initial OM content of the soil immediately underlying the kikuyugrass. Annual verticutting, or twice annual topdressing with or without annual coring a young kikuyugrass were most successful at restricting the accumulation of soil OM (P < 0.05), with OM content <3.5% by 24 mo. Twice annual topdressing with or without annual coring, most rapidly decreased soil OM in the mature kikuyugrass (P < 0.05), with OM content averaging 6.2% by 24 mo. Combining coring with topdressing did not necessarily further decrease OM contents. Topdressing was up to three times more effective at reducing soil OM content than coring alone (P < 0.05). The color and N concentration of both kikuyugrass ages was maintained to local standards by all mechanical and topdressing techniques, although verticutting decreased the incidence of mower scalping in the second year. Verticutting was the most effective approach for restricting the progressive softening of young kikuyugrass with time (P < 0.05), whereas the mature kikuyugrass softened by the same amount irrespective of the renovation treatment.

Abbreviations: LSD, least significant difference • OM, organic matter • +, plus

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Received for publication May 21, 2008.

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Abstract 6 of 32 back

TURFGRASS

Nitrogen and Plant Growth Regulator Influence on ‘Champion’ Bermudagrass Putting Green under Reduced Sunlight

Christian M. Baldwina, Haibo Liub,*, Lambert B. McCartyb, Hong Luoc and Joe E. Tolerd

a Jacklin Seed Company, 5300 W. Riverbend Ave., Post Falls, ID 83854
b Dep. of Horticulture, D-136 Poole Ag. Center, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0319
c Dep. of Genetics and Biochemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0318
d Dep. of Applied Economics and Statistics, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0318

* Corresponding author (haibol@clemson.edu ).

Managing warm-season turfgrasses with reduced sunlight is challenging due to C4 plant morphological limitations, such as reduced lateral stem growth. Adjusting cultural management practices, such as N and trinexapac-ethyl (TE) [4-(cyclopropyl-a-hydroxy-methylene)-3,5-dioxocyclohexanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester], application may benefit turfgrass performance when sunlight is reduced. Therefore, a 2-yr field study from 15 June to 15 September in 2006 and 2007 at Clemson University investigated the best management practices for sustaining a high quality ‘Champion’ bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. X C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) putting green maintained at a 3.2-mm mowing height under reduced sunlight. Treatments included full-sunlight, 55% full-day shade, TE (0.02 kg a.i. ha–1 2 wk–1), Fe (2.7 kg ha–1 2 wk–1), and N as liquid urea at 147, 293, and 440 kg ha–1 yr–1. Data collection included visual turfgrass quality (TQ), total clipping yield, clipping chlorophyll concentration, root total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC), thatch accumulation, and thatch depth. Overall, Fe applications minimally impacted parameters measured. Increasing N rates linearly increased TQ when grown under full sunlight. Applying N at ~40% lower (147 kg ha–1 yr–1) than the typical recommended rates for ultradwarf bermudagrass putting greens improved Champion TQ under reduced light compared to higher N rates. Applying TE resulted in a linear TQ increase for full sunlight and shade-grown Champion bermudagrass. Under reduced sunlight, a 15% chlorophyll concentration increase was noted for TE-treated plots compared to nonTE-treated plots. Shade reduced thatch accumulation 40% compared to sun-grown Champion, which suggests less aggressive cultivation practices are required for thatch control under reduced light. Champion bermudagrass did not provide an acceptable putting green quality when grown under 55% full-day shade, however, adjusting management practices enhanced Champion bermudagrass quality under reduced light.

Abbreviations: TE, trinexapac-ethyl • PGR, plant growth regulator • TNC, total nonstructural carbohydrates • TQ, turfgrass quality

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Received for publication July 3, 2008.

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Abstract 7 of 32 back

COTTON

Differential Responses of Cotton Cultivars when Applying Mepiquat Pentaborate

Nathan B. O'Berrya,*, Joel C. Fairclothb, Michael A. Jonesc, David A. Herbert, Jr.d, Azenegashe O. Abayee, Thomas E. McKemief and Cavell Brownieg

a Isle of Wight County Extension Office, 17100 Monument Circle, Suite B, Isle of Wight, VA 23397
b Dow AgroSciences, 1799 Percy Place, Collierville, TN 38017
c Clemson University, Pee Dee Research and Education Center, 2200 Pocket Road, Florence, SC 29506
d Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center, 6321 Holland Road, Suffolk, VA 23437
e Crop and Soil Environmental Science Dep., Campus Box 0404, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061
f BASF Corporation, 5104 Indigo Moon Way, Raleigh, NC 27613
g Professor Emerita, North Carolina State University, 3309 Horton Street, Raleigh, NC 27607

* Corresponding author (noberry@vt.edu ).

Plant growth regulators are routinely used in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production to reduce plant height and hasten maturity. The objective of this research was to determine the response of several cotton cultivars to mepiquat pentaborate (MPB) application in environments accumulating different levels of heat units. Four MPB application regimes were imposed on three cultivars in Virginia and South Carolina in 2005 and 2006. Total MPB season rates of 0.0, 54.9, 85.3, or 121.9 g ai ha–1 applied at the five-leaf stage, pin-head square, match-head square, and early bloom were used. The cultivars were: Deltapine (DP) 444 BG/RR, an "early-maturing" cultivar; Fibermax (FM) 960 BR, a "medium-maturing" cultivar; and DP 555 BG/RR, a "late-maturing" cultivar. In South Carolina in 2006, FM 960 BR July plant height was reduced by 25% with MPB application compared to only 12 and 13% for DP 444 BG/RR and DP 555 BG/RR, respectively, although actual plant height reductions were not different among cultivars. Mepiquat pentaborate applications decreased plant height at harvest by 8 to 34%, height-to-node ratio by 10 to 32%, enhanced maturity as measured by nodes above white flower for all cultivars, and decreased lint yield by 3.7 to 8.5% compared to untreated cotton. Higher seasonal totals and earlier initiation of MPB application resulted in the greatest decrease in lint yield.

Abbreviations: AMS, apical main-stem • DP, Deltapine • FM, Fibermax • HNR, height-to-node ratio • MC, mepiquat chloride • MPB, mepiquat pentaborate • NAWF, nodes above white flower • PGR, plant growth regulator

All rights reserved. No part of this periodical may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Received for publication August 15, 2008.

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Abstract 8 of 32 back

SOYBEAN

Main-Stem Node Removal Effect on Soybean Seed Yield and Composition

Shawn P. Conleya,*, Palle Pedersenb and Ellsworth P. Christmasc

a Dep. of Agronomy, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1575 Linden Dr., Madison, WI 53706
b Dep. of Agronomy, Iowa State Univ., 2104 Agronomy Hall, Ames, IA 50011-1010
c Dep. of Agronomy, Purdue Univ., 815 W. State St., West Lafayette, IN 47907

* Corresponding author (spconley@wisc.edu ).

Hail injury to soybean [Glycine max L. (Merr.)] is common across the United States. Currently, U.S. hail adjusters use procedures that assume that yield reductions caused by stem cutoff and defoliation or defoliation without stem loss is similar during the vegetative development period. Our hypothesis was that seed yield will be affected by timing of node removal in vegetative soybean and that main-stem node removal will influence seed composition. Research was conducted in Indiana and Iowa from 2003 to 2005 to test if removing 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 100% of nodes at V2, V6, or R3 development stages affects seed yield and grain composition. In Indiana, imposing node removal at the V2 stage resulted in 15.9% greater yield than imposing at the V6 stage. In Iowa, imposing node removal at the V2 stage on the average resulted in 24.9 and 46.1% greater seed yield than imposing node removal at the V6 or R3 stages, respectfully. Seed mass was 7.7% greater when comparing the V2 to the V6 node removal timing in Indiana. In Iowa, seed mass decreased 7.0% when 60% of the nodes were removed at V6 and 5.6% when 20% of the nodes were removed at R3. Soybean oil content was only affected by extreme node removal treatments while protein content was unaffected. Our results indicate that the soybean development stage that node removal occurs must be considered when estimating soybean seed yield loss and that an oil content adjustment is not needed to properly compensate growers for economic losses caused by node removal.

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Received for publication April 18, 2008.

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Abstract 9 of 32 back

SOYBEAN

Growth, Yield, and Yield Component Changes among Old and New Soybean Cultivars

Jason L. De Bruin* and Palle Pedersen

Dep. of Agronomy, Iowa State Univ., 2104 Agronomy Hall, Ames, IA 50011-1010

* Corresponding author (jsndbrn@iastate.edu ).

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] yield has increased at a rate of 25 to 30 kg ha–1 yr–1 due in part to improved genetic gain, and has been further advanced by the addition of resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe; SCN) in new cultivars. The objective was to determine specific growth changes that explain the yield improvement from old to new cultivars and the further yield improvement gained from the addition of SCN resistance. Studies were conducted at three Iowa locations during 2005 and 2006. Two old and two new SCN-susceptible, and two new SCN-resistant cultivars were evaluated for total dry matter (TDM) accumulation and leaf area index (LAI) through the season along with yield and yield components at harvest. New cultivars produced yields superior to older cultivars due to increased crop growth rate (CGR) culminating in greater TDM 105 days after emergence (DAE). Yield was strongly associated with the number of seeds produced m–2 and this yield component accounted for almost all of the yield differences among cultivars. Seeds m–2 was positively related to CGR between 42 and 105 (growth stage R1–R5.5) DAE and to LAI 105 DAE. New SCN-resistant cultivars produced yields 17 to 19% greater than new susceptible cultivars across three locations. Increased TDM and CGR explained the yield response at the low-yield location, but not at the high-yield locations. Apparent harvest index (HI) was similar among all cultivars at each location. Selection for increased yield has indirectly selected for increased TDM and CGR with a similar amount partitioned to seed dry weight. Future yield gains will be made by (i) increasing the amount and the rate of dry matter (DM) and (ii) through the increased production and duration of leaf area.

Abbreviations: CGR, crop growth rate • DAE, days after emergence • DM, dry matter • HG, Heterodera glycines • HI, harvest index • LAI, leaf area index • MG, maturity group • Pi, initial SCN population density • SCN, soybean cyst nematode • TDM, total dry matter

All rights reserved. No part of this periodical may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Received for publication May 31, 2008.

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نوشته شده توسط رامین زیلا ب پور در 21:43 |  لینک ثابت   • 

دوشنبه دوازدهم اسفند 1387

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Current Issue:
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Abstract 10 of 32back

SOYBEAN

Analysis of High Yielding, Early-Planted Soybean in Indiana

Andrew P. Robinsona,*, Shawn P. Conleyb, Jeffrey J. Voleneca and Judith B. Santinia

a Dep. of Agronomy, Purdue Univ., 915 West State St., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2054
b Dep. of Agronomy, 1575 Linden Drive, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706

* Corresponding author (arobinson@purdue.edu ).

A trend toward early planting of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in Indiana results in higher yield, but the limit to which a positive response to early planting occurs has not been evaluated. Our objective was to determine how early planting affects yield components and seed composition of indeterminate soybean planted in late March through early June in Indiana. Three cultivars (Pioneer brand 92M61, Becks brand 321NRR, and Becks brand 367NRR) were sown at six planting dates (late March through early June) in West Lafayette, IN, in 2006 and 2007. Across cultivars, yield in 2006 ranged between 4.24 to 4.43 Mg ha–1 at the planting dates from late March to mid-May, and decreased to 3.36 and 3.56 Mg ha–1 at later planting dates. In 2007, yield ranged from 4.21 to 4.44 Mg ha–1 for the 10 April, 30 April, and 9 May planting dates. Yield was reduced at the late March and early June plantings and ranged from 3.85 to 3.99 Mg ha–1. Path analysis revealed that pods m–2 had the greatest impact on yield, but seed mass was also an important constituent. Mean oil concentration decreased approximately 12 g kg–1 as planting was delayed in both years. In 2006, average seed protein concentration varied by planting date. In 2007, mean protein concentration increased 14 g kg–1 as planting was delayed. Delaying planting until late May or early June altered seed composition slightly, but significantly reduced yield. Planting in April or early May is an effective management strategy to increase soybean yield in Indiana.

All rights reserved. No part of this periodical may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Received for publication July 10, 2008.

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Abstract 11 of 32 back

POTATO

Potato Yield and Quality Response to Subsoil Tillage and Compaction

Michael E. Copasa, Alvin J. Bussana,*, Michael J. Driliasa and Richard P. Wolkowskib

a Dep. of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706
b Dep. of Soil Sci., Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706

* Corresponding author (ajbussan@wisc.edu ).

Compacted soils have been found in intensively cultivated vegetable crop regions of Central Wisconsin, resulting in the wide scale use of subsoil tillage by growers. The goal of this project was to assess potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield and quality response to soil compaction and subsoil tillage. Potato quality factors evaluated were marketable yield, tuber size distribution, internal quality, and sugar concentration. A controlled small plot experiment and several field scale experiments located in collaborating grower fields were conducted to assess potato and soil responses to subsoil tillage. Cone index profiles showed the potential for limited root growth below the compacted soil layer with values >2.0 MPa. Subsoil tillage reduced cone index values to <1.0 MPa below 33 cm in 2 of 3 yr. Total and U.S. no. 1 yields were not influenced by subsoil tillage. Likewise, no consistent differences were seen in the size distributions of U.S. no. 1 tubers across treatments, but subsoil tillage tended to decrease proportion of tubers 113 to 170 g. Subsoil tillage did not affect tuber glucose or sucrose concentrations at harvest or following storage for 120 d. Internal tuber defects were not affected by either compaction or subsoil tillage. The lack of consistent effects of subsoil tillage on potato yield raises questions regarding the validity of this practice. The recommendation that potato growers use subsoil tillage may be linked to increased tuber size distribution or factors other than yield such as water, nutrient, or disease management.

All rights reserved. No part of this periodical may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Received for publication January 18, 2007.

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Abstract 12 of 32 back

CORN

Planting Date and Cultivar Effects on Grain Yield in Dryland Corn Production

Alpha Y. Kamara*, Friday Ekeleme, David Chikoye and Lucky O. Omoigui

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Nigeria, c/o IITA Ltd. Carolyn House, 26 Dingwall Road, Croydon CR9 3EE UK

* Corresponding author (A.Kamara@cgiar.org ).

Corn (Zea mays L.) production is gradually spreading into the Sudan savanna zone of West Africa where production is limited by erratic and inadequate rainfall. To increase corn production, production practices should be properly designed to minimize the effects of low precipitation and high temperatures that characterize the zone. A study, to determine the performance of late (120 d), early (90 d), and extra-early maturing (80 d) corn cultivars over a range of planting dates, was performed in the Sudan savannas of northeast Nigeria. Delaying planting generally increased days to flowering and the anthesis-silking interval (ASI) and reduced dry matter production and yield and yield components. In Azir, planting of corn on 13 July reduced grain yield by 42% in 2006 because of a dry spell during crop establishment. Delaying planting to 21 and 28 July also reduced grain yield by 19 and 28.5%, respectively over the 2 yr. Averaged over the 2-yr yield reduction was 29.5 and 42% when corn was planted on 21 and 28 July, respectively in Damboa. There was no interaction between planting date and corn cultivar for days to silking, ASI, and grain yield suggesting that the cultivars responded similarly to planting date. The extra-early maturing cultivar, 95 TZEE-W, produced highest dry matter, harvest index, and grain yield at all planting dates suggesting that this cultivar is the most suitable in both locations. To reduce risk of drought stress, extra-early maturing corn cultivars should be planted in the Sudan savanna between the last week of June and the first week of July.

Abbreviations: ASI, anthesis-silking interval • HI, harvest index • WAP, weeks after planting

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Received for publication March 22, 2008.

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Abstract 13 of 32 back

CORN

Uptake of Point Source Depleted 15N Fertilizer by Neighboring Corn Plants

P. J. Hodgena, R. B. Fergusonb, J. F. Shanahanc and J. S. Schepersc,*

a Monsanto Company, Monmouth Agronomy Center, 1677 80th Street, Monmouth, IL 61462
b Dep. of Agronomy and Horticulture, Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE 68583-0724
c USDA-ARS, Lincoln, NE 68583-0934

* Corresponding author (jim.schepers@ars.usda.gov ).

Ground-based active (self-illuminating) sensors make it possible to collect canopy data that are useful for making on-the-go N fertilizer application decisions. These technologies raise questions about plant-to-plant competition for targeted fertilizer N applications. This study evaluated the extent to which fertilizer N applied to an individual corn (Zea mays L.) plant might be intercepted by adjacent plants in the row. Depleted 15N ammonium-nitrate was injected under the center maize plant while the four neighboring plants on each side in the row received the same rate as natural abundance ammonium-nitrate fertilizer. Aboveground biomass was collected 10 (at V12) and 7 (at R1) d after each fertilizer application. Plants were separated into three components at each sampling date. The uptake pattern of depleted 15N indicated an individual maize plant acquires most of its in-season N from an area within a ~40-cm radius. Adjacent plants ~18-cm away from the tagged-N source contained 32 to 40% of the total depleted 15N that was taken up by all nine plants in the sequence. Maize plants ~36 cm from the point source only acquired 5 to 13% of the depleted 15N source that was taken up by all nine plants. It is presently impractical to position in-season by-plant N applications beneath plants as done in this study. Surface applications of liquid N near target plants is presently possible, but the relative effectiveness would likely be less than for injection of the fertilizer beneath each plant.

Abbreviations: Atm%, atom percent • NUE, nitrogen use efficiency

1 Mention of commercial products is for the benefit of the reader and does not imply endorsement by USDA-ARS or the University of Nebraska.

All rights reserved. No part of this periodical may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Received for publication May 30, 2008.

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Abstract 14 of 32 back

CORN

Classifying Maize Inbred Lines into Heterotic Groups using a Factorial Mating Design

X. M. Fana,*, Y. M. Zhangb, W. H. Yaoa, H. M. Chena, J. Tana, C. X. Xua, X. L. Hana, L. M. Luoa and M. S. Kangc

a Institute of Food Crops, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kunming 650205, Yunnan Province, China
b Research Analyst, John Deere Co., Milan, IL 61264
c Vice Chancellor, Punjab Agricultural Univ., Ludhiana 141 004, India

* Corresponding author (xingmingfan@vip.km169.net ).

A novel method of using a heterotic group's specific and general combining ability (HSGCA) to assign maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines into heterotic groups has been proposed recently. The objectives of this study were to (i) assign maize inbred lines to known heterotic groups using this method and (ii) compare efficiency of this method to traditional and molecular methods relative to the percentage of high-yielding hybrids obtained across the total number of the crosses made between testers and lines. An experiment with 23 maize inbred lines crossed to four testers with known heterotic groups was conducted in 2003 and 2004. This study successfully established a clear procedure to classify maize inbred lines into heterotic groups. The HSGCA method increased maize breeding efficiency by 16.7 to 23.6% compared with simple sequence repeat (SSR) and specific combining ability combined line pedigree and hybrid yield information (SCA_PY) methods, respectively. An analysis of variance showed that crosses classified by HSGCA method could explain more variation in maize hybrid yield and produce more predictable yield than the other two methods. The superiority of HSGCA relative to the other two methods is that HSGCA includes both GCA and SCA effect in assigning an unknown maize line to a known maize heterotic group.

Abbreviations: AFLP, amplified fragment length polymorphism • CIMMYT, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center • GS, genetic similarity • HSGCA, heterotic group's specific and general combining ability of an inbred with a representative tester from a maize heterotic group • HZ4, Huangzao4 • LDRC, Luda Red Cob • RFLP, restriction fragment length polymorphism • SCA_PY, specific combining ability combined line pedigree and hybrid yield information • SSR, simple sequence repeat • TSPT, Tangsipingtou

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Received for publication June 28, 2008.

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Abstract 15 of 32 back

RICE

A Model to Predict Safe Stages of Development for Rice Field Draining and Field Tests of the Model Predictions in the Arkansas Grand Prairie

P. A. Councea,*, K. B. Watkinsa, K. R. Bryeb and T. J. Siebenmorgenc

a Univ. of Arkansas, Rice Res. and Ext. Ctr., 2900 Highway 130 East, Stuttgart, AR 72160
b Dep. of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sci., Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701
c Dep. of Food Sci., Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701. Paper published with the approval of the Director, Arkansas Agric. Exp. Stn., Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701

* Corresponding author (pcounce@uark.edu ).

Due to the cost of extracting water, effective and efficient utilization of irrigation water for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is critical to rice farm profitability. The objective of this study is to predict safe stages of development for draining rice. This objective has the potential of saving rice farmers water. A computer program has been developed to predict the stage of development for draining water from rice field soils at which the risk of reduced grain yield or milling quality from insufficient water is considered to be near zero. The parameters of the model are predictions of (i) temperature during rice reproductive growth stages (RRGS) starting at R3, (ii) timing of various RRGS, (iii) maximum amount of water used by the rice crop at each growth stage, and (iv) the water held in the soil profile after draining which is available to the rice crop. The central goals of the model are to allow draining at an RRGS in which (a) the danger of reducing yield and quality from water deficits is at a minimum and (b) water is conserved and land conditions for harvest are improved. Experiments to test the predictions were conducted in 2005 and 2006 at two Arkansas locations: Gillett and Stuttgart. An experiment was also conducted at DeWitt, AR, in 2006. Draining at stages of development predicted by the model did not affect yield milling quality relative to the control for any year or location. Predicted water savings from reduced irrigation ranged between $10.26 to $55.44 ha–1 depending on pump depth. Implementation of the program can save money, reduce tillage costs, and reduce unnecessary depletion of the aquifers.

Abbreviations: RRGS, rice reproductive growth stage • GDD, growing degree days • HRY, head rice yields

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Received for publication October 15, 2007.

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Abstract 16 of 32 back

COVER CROPS

Nitrogen Supply for Cover Crops and Effects on Peanut Grown in Succession under a No-Till System

Carlos A. C. Crusciol* and Rogério P. Soratto

São Paulo State Univ. (UNESP), College of Agricultural Science, Dep. of Crop Sci., Lageado Experimental Farm, P.O. Box 237, 18610-307, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil

* Corresponding author (crusciol@fca.unesp.br ).

In Brazil, as no-till (NT) crop management expands, there is an increased interest in growing peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) with this system. However, it is not known if the preceding cover crop species, the amount of straw on the soil surface, or the N supplied to the cover crop will affect peanut grown in a NT system. An experiment was conducted on a Typic Haplorthox in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, during two agricultural years, to evaluate the cover crop dry matter (DM) and nutrient accumulation as affected by N fertilization and peanut nutrition and yield when grown in succession, under a NT system. Treatments included three cover crops {palisadegrass [Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich) Stapf], pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Brown], and guineagrass [Panicum maximum Jacq.]} and two N rates (0 and 60 kg ha–1) supplied to the cover crops 50 d after emergence (DAE). Pearl millet showed lower nutrient concentrations in aboveground biomass compared with palisadegrass and guineagrass, but accumulated the largest quantities of DM (14.8 Mg ha–1) and macronutrients. Nitrogen application increased N and P concentration in all cover crops, as well as the accumulation of N, Ca, and Mg in pearl millet. Nitrogen-fertilized pearl millet resulted in higher P, Ca, Mg, and S concentrations in peanut leaves grown after. Previous cover crops, even with large straw mulch production (6.0–14.8 Mg ha–1 of DM), did not influence peanut pod yield (mean 2.3 Mg ha–1) in the NT system, nor did N fertilization of the cover crop.

Abbreviations: NT, no-till • DAE, days after emergence • DM, dry matter • OM, organic matter

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Received for publication February 14, 2008.

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Abstract 17 of 32 back

COVER CROPS

Effect of Seeding Rate and Planting Arrangement on Rye Cover Crop and Weed Growth

Nathan S. Boyda, Eric B. Brennanb,*, Richard F. Smithc and Ron Yokotad

a Nova Scotia Agric. College, 21 Cox Rd., Truro, NS, Canada, B2N 5E3
b USDA-ARS, 1636 E. Alisal St., Salinas, CA 93905
c Univ. of California, Cooperative Extension, Salinas CA
d Tanimura & Antle, Salinas, CA

* Corresponding author (eric.brennan@ars.usda.gov ).

Weed growth in winter cover crops in warm climates may contribute to weed management costs in subsequent crops. A 2-yr experiment was conducted on an organic vegetable farm in Salinas, California, to determine the impact of seeding rate and planting arrangement on rye (Secale cereale L. ‘Merced’) cover crop growth and weed suppression. Each year, rye was planted in October at three rates (90, 180, and 270 kg ha–1) and two planting arrangements (one-way versus grid pattern). Averaged across years, rye population densities were 322, 572, and 857 plants m–2 at the 90, 180, and 270 kg ha–1 seeding rates, respectively. Early season rye ground cover increased with seeding rate and was higher in the grid than one-way arrangement in Year 1; however, rye ground cover was not affected by rate and was higher in the one-way arrangement in Year 2. Aboveground dry matter (DM) of rye increased with seeding rate at the first two harvests but not at the final one. Planting arrangement did not affect rye aboveground DM in Year 1, but rye DM was higher in the grid pattern at the first and final harvests in Year 2. Weed emergence was not affected by seeding rate or planting arrangement. Weed biomass decreased with increased seeding rate and was also lower in the grid than in the one-way arrangement in Year 2. A grid planting pattern provided no consistent benefit but planting rye at higher seeding rates maximizes early season rye DM production and minimizes weed growth.

Abbreviations: DAP, days after planting • DM, dry matter

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Received for publication February 25, 2008.

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Abstract 18 of 32 back

GRAZING MANAGEMENT

Animal and Pasture Productivity of ‘Coastal’ and ‘Tifton 44’ Bermudagrass at Three Nitrogen Rates and Associated Soil Nitrogen Status

J. C. Burnsa,*, M. G. Waggerb and D. S. Fisherc

a USDA-ARS and Dep. Crop Science and Dep. Animal Science, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695
b Dep. Soil Science, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695
c USDA-ARS, Watkinsville, GA 30677. Cooperative investigation of the USDA-ARS and the North Carolina ARS, Raleigh, NC 27695-7643. The use of trade names does not imply endorsements by USDA-ARS or by the North Carolina ARS of the products named or criticism of similar ones not mentioned

* Corresponding author (Joe.Burns@ars.usda.gov ).

‘Coastal’ and ‘Tifton 44’ (T44) bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] are well adapted across the lower southern United States, but the grazing response of (T44) to N application in the Piedmont of the upper South warrants further evaluation. This 3-yr experiment compared animal and pasture productivity of Coastal and T44 with three annual N rates of 101, 202, and 303 kg of N ha–1 on a Cecil clay loam (fine, kaolinitic thermic Typic Kanhapludult) soil typical of the Piedmont. Herbage mass differed for Coastal and T44 (3.5 and 3.0 Mg ha–1 respectively, P < 0.01), but not among N rates. The canopy of T44 was leafier (20.6 vs. 14.5% of dry matter) than Coastal and greater for in vitro true organic matter disappearance (IVTOD) (522 vs. 498 g kg–1) and CP (107 vs. 84 g kg–1) and lesser in NDF (596 vs. 605 g kg–1). The diet selected from T44 was greater in IVTOD (764 vs. 743 g kg–1) and lesser in NDF (596 vs. 605 g kg–1) giving greater steer average daily gain (0.63 kg vs. 0.57 kg; P < 0.01) which increased (P = 0.05) with N rate. Weight gain ha–1 (884 kg) and effective feed units (EFU) (4735 kg ha–1) were similar, and N rate linearly increased gain from 723 to 1073 kg ha–1 and EFU from 3978 to 5523 kg ha–1. Soil inorganic N was similar between cultivars but differed among soil depths. Tifton 44 pasture was greater in nutritive value, hence steer performance, and as productive as Coastal in the Piedmont.

Abbreviations: ADF, acid detergent fiber • ADG, average daily gain • CELL, cellulose • CP, crude protein • EFU, effective feed unit • HM, herbage mass • HEMI, hemicellulose • IVTOD, in vitro true organic matter digestion • LOF, lack of fit • NDF, neutral detergent fiber • NIRS, near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy • OM, organic matter • T44, Tifton 44 bermudagrass

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Received for publication July 3, 2008.

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Abstract 19 of 32 back

GRAZING MANAGEMENT

Cattle Gain and Crop Yield for a Dryland Wheat-Sorghum-Fallow Rotation

R. L. Baumhardta,*, R. C. Schwartza, L. W. Greeneb and J. C. MacDonaldc

a USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, P.O. Drawer 10, Bushland, TX 79012-0010
b Dep. Animal Science, 209 Animal Sciences, Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL. 36849
c Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center, 6500 Amarillo Blvd. W., Amarillo, TX, 79106

* Corresponding author (r.louis.baumhardt@ars.usda.gov ).

Increasing pumping costs and declining well capacities in the U.S. Southern High Plains have led to greater reliance on less productive and inherently riskier dryland cropping systems. Dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] are typically grown in a 3-yr wheat-sorghum-fallow (WSF) rotation that may be intensified by integrating cattle (Bos taurus) grazing. Suitability of grazing dryland crops in the WSF rotation has not been evaluated. Our objectives were to quantify (i) cattle gain during limited grazing of dryland wheat and sorghum stover, and (ii) grazing effects on the growth and yield of the grazed wheat and subsequent sorghum crop. We established, concurrently, all WSF rotation phases in duplicate ungrazed and grazed plots in three replicated paddocks on a gently sloping Pullman silty clay loam (fine, mixed, superactive, thermic Torrertic Paleustoll) at the USDA-ARS, Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, TX (35°11' N, 102°5' W). Cattle gain, fallow soil water storage, and the growth and yield of wheat and subsequent grain sorghum were compared from 2000 to 2007 within a randomized complete block. Dryland wheat was grazed an average of 31 d during 7 of 8 test years by cattle stocked at 1.7 Mg ha–1 and produced a mean gain of 123 kg ha–1. Wheat grain yield averaged 1.72 Mg ha–1 without grazing and was not different from the 1.57 Mg ha–1 grain yield with grazing. Grazing decreased wheat straw yield, but subsequent soil water storage was unaffected. Sorghum grain yields of 2.26 Mg ha–1 in ungrazed plots were not different from grazed plots averaging 2.20 Mg ha–1. Overall productivity of the WSF cropping system was increased using limited grazing of dryland wheat forage and sorghum stover with no significant reduction in wheat or sorghum grain yields.

Abbreviations: G, grazed • LAI, leaf area index (m2 m–2) • UG, ungrazed • WSF, wheat-sorghum-fallow rotation

1 The mention of trade names of commercial products in this article is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

All rights reserved. No part of this periodical may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Received for publication March 31, 2008.

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Abstract 20 of 32 back

NITROGEN MANAGEMENT

Regional Evaluation of Critical Nitrogen Concentrations in Winter Wheat Production of the North China Plain

Zhenling Cuia, Fusuo Zhanga, Zhengxia Doub, Miao Yuxina, Qinping Sun, Xinping Chena,*, Junliang Lic, Youliang Yed, Zhiping Yange, Qiang Zhange, Chunsheng Liuf and Shaomin Huangg

a Dep. of Plant Nutrition, College of Resources and Environ. Sci., China Agricultural Univ., Beijing 100094, China
b School of Veterinary Medicine, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA 19348
c College of Resources and Environ. Sci., Qingdao Agricultural Univ., Qingdao 266109, China
d College of Resources and Environ. Sci., Henan Agricultural Univ., Zhengzhou 450000, China
e Inst. of Soil Sci. and Fertilizer, Shanxi Academy of Agric. Sci., Taiyuan 030031, China
f College of Resources and Environ. Sci., Shandong Agricultural Univ., Taian 271018, China
g Institute of Soil Sci. and Fertilizer, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sci., Zhengzhou, 450000, China

* Corresponding author (chenxp@cau.edu.cn ).

Investigating critical nitrogen concentration (CNC) in grain and straw provides insights into N nutrition, and can serve as a guide to improved agricultural practice. This regional study evaluated the relationship between N fertilization rate and grain yield, N concentration, potential N loss, and determined critical grain and straw nitrogen concentrations (CGNC and CSNC) for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in China. At the economically optimum nitrogen rate (EONR), grain N concentration was similar to the maximum value calculated using a linear plus plateau model, while straw N concentration was significantly less than the relevant maximum value. Soil nitrate N content after harvest and apparent N loss for maximum straw N concentration increased by 19 and 9 kg N ha–1 compared to values at the EONR. Based on nine field experiments, CGNC and CSNC corresponding to optimal N rate were established to be 21.9 g kg–1 (20.8–23.0 g kg–1) and 6.8 g kg–1 (6.5–7.1 g kg–1), respectively. An evaluation of CGNC and CSNC across 111 on-farm sites indicated that while many sites had grain and straw N concentrations falling within the CGNC and CSNC, a substantial portion of the sites had grain and straw N concentrations falling outside of the CGNC and CSNC or falling within the critical ranges when N supply was deficient (0 N control) or excess (at farmer's N practice). This region-wide study provided evidence for the usefulness of CSNC, and particularly CGNC, as indicators of N deficiencies in wheat production; however, neither indicator provided information about excess N fertilization.

Abbreviations: CGNC, critical grain N concentration • CNC, critical N concentration • CSNC, critical straw N concentration • EONR, economically optimal N rate • NCP, North China Plain

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Received for publication March 31, 2008.

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نوشته شده توسط رامین زیلا ب پور در 21:41 |  لینک ثابت   • 

دوشنبه دوازدهم اسفند 1387

ادمه مطلب (3)


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Current Issue:
January-February 2009  

Abstract 21 of 3۲ 

INTEGRATED AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS

Linking Wisconsin Dairy and Grain Farms via Manure Transfer for Corn Production

Gregg R. Sanforda,*, Amy R. Cookb, Josh L. Posnera, Janet L. Hedtckea, John A. Hallc and Jon O. Baldockd

a Dep. of Agronomy, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1575 Linden Dr., Madison, WI 53706
b Massachusetts Association of Conservation Districts, 52 Boyden Rd., Holden, MA 01520
c Michael Fields Agricultural Institute, W2493 County Rd. ES, East Troy, WI 53120
d Agstat, 6394 Grandview Rd., Verona, WI 53593

* Corresponding author (gsanford@wisc.edu ).

One relatively under-used manure management strategy employed by dairy farmers is to transport and apply manure onto the fields of nearby grain farmers. While this system offers advantages to both parties, little of the existing research on manure management has been conducted on grain farms. As part of an effort to link grain and livestock farms in southern Wisconsin, 20 on-farm trials were conducted to study the agronomic and environmental effects of including manure in cash-grain rotations. Manure was applied at a rate of approximately 107 m3 ha–1 as slurry (11,000 gal acre–1) or 54 Mg ha–1 (24 ton acre–1) as a solid. Across-site analysis indicated that the manured treatment increased corn (Zea mays L.) yields significantly (alpha = 0.05), by 0.5 Mg ha–1 (11.5 vs. 11.0 Mg ha–1), with 67 kg ha–1 less purchased fertilizer N during the 3 yr of this study. However, there were environmental concerns: (i) Early fall manure spreading significantly increased fall nitrate (NO3) levels in the manured plots (175 vs. 87 kg NO3–N ha–1); (ii) Following corn harvest, fall NO3 levels were fairly low and equivalent between treatments with the exception of three sites where manuring resulted in significantly higher NO3–N; and (iii) Soil tests following corn harvest indicated a significant increase in soil test phosphorus (STP) on the manured plots. These results indicate that dairy manure can reduce fertilizer inputs although there is a risk of NO3–N leaching and P accumulation. Informal interviews were conducted with farmer-participants following this study to asses current manure use.

Abbreviations: BLUP, best linear unbiased predictors • FC, farmers' check • GDD, growing degree days • M, manure + supplemental fertilizer • PSNT, presidedress soil nitrate test • RCBD, randomized complete block design • RHA, rolling herd average • SFAL, Soil and Forage Analysis Laboratory • SPAL, Soil and Plant Analysis Laboratory • STK, soil test potassium • STP, soil test phosphorus

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Received for publication April 21, 2008.

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Abstract 22 of 32 back

INTEGRATED AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS

Rotational and Cover Crop Determinants of Soil Structural Stability and Carbon in a Potato System

Edgar A. Po, Sieglinde S. Snapp* and Alexandra Kravchenko

Dep. of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State Univ., Kellogg Biological Station, East Lansing, MI 48824-1325

* Corresponding author (snapp@msu.edu ).

Understanding processes that ameliorate structural degradation in sandy soils is particularly important in intensively managed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) systems. Seven 2-yr potato rotation systems were evaluated over 3 yr in an irrigated field trial comparing winter management systems bare (B) and cover crops: rye (Secale cereale L.; R), rye-hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth; RV) mixture and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; C). Crops rotated with potatoes (P) were snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris (L.); SB), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.; W) and sweet corn (Zea mays L.; SC). The systems consisted of: S1 PBSBB; S2 PRSBR; S3 PRSCB; S4 PWWR; S5 PWWCC; S6 PRVSBRV; and S7 PRVSCRV, both entry points evaluated each year. Carbon inputs above- and belowground were measured and systems grouped as low (S1 and S4), medium (S2 and S6), and high (S5, S3 and S7): 1.2, 2.0, and 2.8 Mg C ha–1, respectively. Response variables included water stable aggregate (WSA) size fractions, macroaggregates (≥0.25 mm) and microaggregates (<0.25 mm), mean weight diameter (MWD), soil C, nitrogen mineralization potential (NMP), and potato tuber yield. Systems with SC contributed twofold higher biomass than rotations with W or SB, and the presence of RC contributed higher amounts of carbon (1.2 Mg ha–1) compared to R (0.7 Mg ha–1). Only the entry year influenced macroaggregates in 2001; both entry year and cropping system influenced aggregate size classes in 2004. Over 3 yr the macro-WSAs declined by 13%, except for high carbon input systems. Residue C input was a moderate predictor of total soil C (31% of variability explained), whereas macro- and micro-WSAs were predictors of soil C, accounting for 58 and 72% of observed variability, respectively. Low levels of aggregation were observed in this sandy soil and the modest amounts of C inputs from winter cover crops posed a challenge to detecting treatment effects, which was in part overcome by georeferencing, to improve precision of sampling over time.

Abbreviations: B, winter management systems bare • C, clover • CEC, cation exchange capacity • MWD, mean weight diameter • NMP, nitrogen mineralization potential • P, potatoes • PEI, Prince Edward Island • R, rye • RV, rye-hairy vetch • SB, snap bean • SC, sweet corn • SOC, soil organic carbon • W, wheat • WSA, water stable aggregate

All rights reserved. No part of this periodical may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Received for publication May 28, 2008.

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Abstract 23 of 32 back

AGROFORESTRY

Effect of Loblolly Pine Root Pruning on Alley Cropped Herbage Production and Tree Growth

D. M. Burnera,*, D. H. Potea and D. P. Beleskyb

a Dale Bumpers Small Farms Research Center, USDA-ARS, 6883 S. State Hwy. 23, Booneville, AR 72927
b USDA-ARS, Appalachian Farming Systems Research Center, 1224 Airport Rd., Beaver, WV 25813

* Corresponding author (David.Burner@ars.usda.gov ).

Tillage to disrupt (prune) tree roots is an intensive practice which could improve herbage productivity at the crop–tree interface by reducing competition for water. We compared tillage effects on 9- to 11-yr-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) growth and herbage yields of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] on a fragipan soil in Arkansas. Alley crops were rotationally grown in a 9.7-m wide alley (main plot) between bordering trees on one of three tillage treatments: control (surface tillage), rip followed by surface tillage, and trench plus root barrier followed by surface tillage. Topsoil water in May through September, herbage mass, and nutritive value were measured for each crop for 2 or 3 yr in three subplots systematically arrayed (north, middle, and south) across the alley. Diameter at breast height (DBH, measured 1.3 m above soil surface) and height of border trees were measured annually. Trenching resulted in a more uniform distribution of topsoil water among subplots compared to the other tillage treatments. Annual ryegrass yield did not show a tillage response, but pearl millet yielded more herbage in the rip (6760 kg ha–1 in 2003) and trench (3300 kg ha–1 in 2005) than the control treatment (4990 and 1260 kg ha–1 for 2003 and 2005, respectively). Ripping and trenching significantly reduced loblolly pine DBH and height compared to the control. Similarly configured alley cropping practices probably have little potential for annual herbage production even with root pruning.

Abbreviations: DBH, diameter breast height • IVDMD, in vitro dry matter digestibility • PAR, photosynthetically active radiation • TNC, total nonstructural carbohydrates

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Received for publication May 28, 2008.

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Abstract 24 of 32 back

AGROCLIMATOLOGY

Canopy Gas Exchange Measurements of Cotton in an Open System

Jeffrey T. Bakera,*, Scott Van Pelta, Dennis C. Gitzb, Paxton Paytonb, Robert Joseph Lascanob and Bobbie McMichaelb

a USDA-ARS, Plant Stress and Water Conservation Laboratory, 302 West I-20, Big Spring, TX, 79720
b USDA-ARS, Plant Stress and Water Conservation Laboratory, 3810 4th Street, Lubbock, TX 79415

* Corresponding author (Jeff.Baker@ars.usda.gov ).

A portable, open transparent chamber system for measuring canopy gas exchanges was developed and tested. Differentials between incoming and outgoing atmospheric H2O and CO2 concentrations were used to calculate canopy transpiration (E) and net assimilation (A) at 10-s intervals using solenoid valve actuated sample lines connected to an infrared gas analyzer. A programmable data logger controlled fan speed and air flow rate to control daytime chamber air temperature to within 0.5°C of ambient air temperature. To validate the mass balance equations used to calculate E, the chamber was positioned over sealed soil potted cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants which were placed on a weighing scale. A second scale was used to measure E of cotton plants outside the chamber to quantify potential chamber effects. A wide range of crop canopy leaf areas and soil water contents were created with greenhouse-grown plants for these comparisons. Data analysis indicated agreement between chamber E measurements and the internal weighing scale (R2 = 0.93), as well as comparison between the internal and external scales (R2 = 0.88) across wide ranges of soil water contents and canopy leaf area. Transpiration ranged from near zero at night to 900 g (H2O) h–1 during the day. Bias estimates of E for chamber vs. internal scale and the internal vs. external scale were –6.0 and 4.6 g (H2O) h–1. With minor chamber effect, the chamber accurately estimates E for many field applications such as comparison of canopy gas exchanges and water use efficiencies among irrigation treatments.

Abbreviations: A, canopy net assimilation • BREB, Eddy Correlation and Bowen Ratio Energy Balance • CETA, Canopy EvapoTranspiration and Assimilation chamber • E, canopy transpiration • ET, evapotranspiration • IRGA, infrared gas analyzer • NEE, net ecosystem exchange • PAR, photosynthetically active radiation • SPAR, Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Research chamber

1 Mention of this or other proprietary products is for the convenience of the readers only, and does not constitute endorsement or preferential treatment of these products by USDA-ARS.

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Received for publication July 3, 2008.

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Abstract 25 of 32 back

AGROCLIMATOLOGY

Impact of Planting Date and Hybrid on Early Growth of Sweet Corn

Axel Garcia y Garcia*, Larry C. Guerra and Gerrit Hoogenboom

Dep. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, The Univ. of Georgia, 1109 Experiment St., Griffin, GA 30223-1797

* Corresponding author (axelg2@uga.edu ).

Sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. rugosa) is a warm-weather crop that is grown in most of the United States. Normally, it is planted over an extended planting window to provide a continuous supply for the fresh market. However, this planting window exposes the crop to various stresses and weather risks. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of planting date on early growth of sweet corn with different maturities for different environmental conditions in Georgia, USA. Three yellow sweet corn genotypes, including a full homozygous sugar enhanced (se), a super sweet (sh2), and a standard or normal (su), were compared in 2004, 2005, and 2006 in two locations in Georgia. The experiment consisted of one planting date in 2004, six in 2005, and four planting dates under two water regimes in 2006. Plant growth variables that were measured included leaf area index (LAI), canopy height, and aboveground biomass from emergence to the beginning of tasseling. The growth rate as a function of thermal time (TT) was used to determine the impact of planting date on growth of sweet corn. A base temperature (Tb) of 6.6°C for the three genotypes, obtained from experimental data, was used. Days to emergence varied from 4 to 12 for the warmest and coolest growing seasons, respectively. The growth of the three sweet corn genotypes showed a clear response to planting dates as LAI, canopy height, and aboveground biomass and the individual plant components, including stem, sheath, and leaves were significantly (P < 0.05) different at the beginning of tasseling. For all experiments, the longer the maturity group, the higher the total aboveground biomass. Significant differences (P < 0.05) for growth rate were found between planting dates, genotypes, plant components and their interactions. The short-season hybrid tended to have a faster overall plant growth rate of all individual plant components during the warmer seasons. In contrast, the mid- and full-season hybrids tended to have a higher growth rate during the cooler seasons. For rainfed conditions, the short-season hybrid had higher leaf and sheath growth rates than the mid- and full-season hybrids, resulting in a higher stem growth rate. These results indicate that the effect of planting date on early growth of sweet corn is of significance, as it may lead to identification of an optimum planting window for this crop.

Abbreviations: BRF, Bledsoe Research Farm • LAI, leaf area index • se, sugar enhanced • SIRP, C.M. Stripling Irrigation Research Park • sh2, super sweet • su, standard • Tb, base temperature • TT, thermal time

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Received for publication December 10, 2007.

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Abstract 26 of 32 back

BIOFUELS

Improving the Fermentation Characteristics of Corn through Agronomic and Processing Practices

Graig Reicks*, Howard J. Woodard and Anthony Bly

Plant Sci. Dep., South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD 57007-1096

* Corresponding author (Graig.Reicks@SDstate.edu ).

This study determined the influence of corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids, N availability, grain harvest moisture, and drying temperatures on dry-mill ethanol production. Six hybrids, ranging from 92 to 108 d in relative maturity (RM), were planted at two locations over 2 yr. One of four N fertilizer treatments were applied. Grain was hand-harvested at grain moistures of 20 and 25%. Grain was dried to about 15% moisture at either 25, 38, 52, or 60°C in 2003, and 38, 66, 75, or 93°C in 2004. Ethanol was measured after grain was subjected to a small-scale bench fermentation process. Grain yield increased at all four site-years as available N increased to the recommended N application rate. Relative ethanol concentration was generally not affected by normal N fertilizer rates. Significant reductions in relative ethanol concentration occurred at the both the highest and lowest N rates in one-of-four site years. Hybrids designated as high fermentable starch (HS) by the company did not necessarily yield more ethanol than other hybrids. Ethanol concentration was reduced by 0.3% at Brookings for grain that was subjected to a killing frost. Ethanol concentration generally did not differ between grain dried at 38 and 52°C in 2003. Ethanol from grain harvested at 25% moisture and dried at 25°C was 0.1 to 0.3% lower than when grain was dried at 38 or 52°C. Drying temperatures of 25 to 52°C had no influence on relative ethanol concentration when the grain was harvested at 20% moisture. However, ethanol concentration was lowered 0.1 to 0.4% when drying temperature increased to 93°C in 2004. These results suggest that producers should apply the recommended N rates for maximum economic yield, plant adapted hybrids, and dry corn grain between 38 and 52°C to maximize relative ethanol concentration.

Abbreviations: HS, high fermentable grain starch • R4, growth stage of corn when kernels are considered a dough consistency • RM, relative maturity

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Received for publication December 13, 2007.

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Abstract 27 of 32 back

MANURE

Dairy Cattle Manure Improves Soil Productivity in Low Residue Rotation Systems

Judith Nyiranezaa,*, Martin H. Chantignyb, Adrien N'Dayegamiyec and Marc R. Laverdièrec

a Université Laval. Pavillon Paul Comtois. Département des Sols et Génie Agroalimentaire. Québec, QC. G1K 7P4. Canada
b Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada. 2560 Boul. Hochelaga. Québec, QC, G1V 2J3 Canada
c Institut de Recherche et de Développement en Agroenvironnement (IRDA). 2700, Rue Einstein. Québec, QC, G1P 3W8 Canada

* Corresponding author (judith.nyiraneza.1@ulaval.ca ).

Mineral fertilizer alone may not sustain soil productivity in cropping systems that return little crop residues to the soil, unless additional organic residues and/or manure is applied regularly to the soil. The objective of the present study was to assess the long-term effects of mineral fertilization (No fertilizer, PK, and NPK) and manure addition (0 and 20 Mg ha–1 yr–1) on soil physical and chemical properties and crop yields in a cereal rotation with removal of crop residues. After 28 yr, soil organic carbon (SOC) declined by –0.25 g C kg–1 yr–1 and total nitrogen (TN) by –0.025 g N kg–1 yr–1 with balanced mineral fertilization (NPK, no manure), comparable to the control (no manure, no fertilizer). In addition, mean weight diameter (MWD) of water-stable aggregates was lower with balanced mineral fertilization than in the control. In contrast, long-term application of manure significantly increased water-stable macroaggregates, potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN), and soil preseeding NO3–N levels. Corn yield and N uptake were increased by mineral fertilization compared to the control, and manure application increased corn yield by 89 and 87% and corn N uptake by 110 and 79% in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Increased corn yield in manured plots was attributed to the residual manure-derived nutrients and to improved soil properties. Mineral fertilizer alone could not sustain soil productivity in intensive low-residues cropping systems.

Abbreviations: FA, fulvic acids • HA, humic acids • MWD, mean weight diameter • NHF, nonhumified fraction • PMN, potentially mineralizable nitrogen • SOC, soil organic carbon • SOM, soil organic matter

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Received for publication April 4, 2008.

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Abstract 28 of 32 back

MANURE

Zonejection: Conservation Tillage Manure Nutrient Delivery System

B. R. Ball Coelhoa,*, R. C. Royb, A. J. Bruina, A. Moreb and P. Whiteb

a Agric. & Agri-Food Canada, Southern Crop Protection & Food Res. Cent., 1391 Sandford St., London, ON, Canada N5V 4T3
b Agric. & Agri-Food Canada, Southern Crop Protection & Food Res. Cent., Delhi, ON, Canada, N4B 2W9

* Corresponding author (ballb@agr.gc.ca ).

Manure application in minimum till (MT) systems is a challenge worthy of attention because residue cover is a keystone for environmental protection. To develop a system combining zone tillage and manure application into one operation (zonejection), two experiments were conducted. In Exp. 1, liquid swine manure (LSM) was applied in fall or spring for two site years (A, B). In Exp. 2, LSM was zone-applied either all preplant (PP) or split between preplant and sidedress (SP) for three site years (C, D, E). In both experiments, dietrich (DMI), vibro shank (VS), or subsurface deposition (SSD) applied the LSM, corn (Zea mays L.) was seeded in the manured zone, and NO3–N movement was monitored. Nutrients were supplied by inorganic fertilizer (IF) in control treatments under conventional till (CT), no till (NT), and zone till (ZT). With fall-applied LSM, after a mild winter, more N was lost from the soil–plant system (i.e., 35 kg ha–1 soil NO3–N) than after a cold winter with snow cover (18 kg ha–1), and corn grain yield was reduced (by 1.2 Mg ha–1), even though supplemental fertilizer N was sidedressed. In Exp. 2, with LSM zoned all PP or SP, grain yield and N use efficiency were comparable to that with IF, except when double the crop N requirement was zoned all PP (Site D). Planting into a zone of concentrated LSM (3.4 S m–1) reduced grain yield when the LSM was injected by VS. With careful management, zonejection allows efficient utilization of manure nutrients while preserving residue cover.

Abbreviations: ANR, apparent N recovery • CT, conventional till • DMI, dietrich • IF, inorganic fertilizer • LSM, liquid swine manure • MT, minimum till • NT, no till • PHSN, post-harvest soil nitrate • PP, manure applied all preplant • PSNT, presidedress nitrate test • SD, sidedress • SP, manure split between preplant and sidedress • SSD, subsurface deposition • UAN, urea ammonium nitrate • VS, vibro shank • ZT, zone till

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Received for publication July 8, 2008.

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Abstract 29 of 32 back

SPATIAL VARIABILITY

Nondestructive Measurement of Grapevine Leaf Area by Ground Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

Rachid Drissia,*, Jean-Pascal Goutoulya, Dominique Forgetb and Jean-Pierre Gaudillerea

a ECAV, UMR EGFV, Institut des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin de Bordeaux, Domaine INRA de la Grande Ferrade, BP 81, 33883 Villenave d'Ornon Cedex, France
b Chateau Couhins, Chemin de la Gravette, BP 81, 33883 Villenave d'Ornon Cedex, France

* Corresponding author (drissirachid@yahoo.fr ).

Vine leaf area index has a great impact on berry quality. This study was conducted to determine whether vine leaf area index could be estimated, and mapped through normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) ground-based measurements. The NDVI measurements were performed using a Greenseeker (N-Tech Industires, Ukiah, CA and Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater), pointed sideways at the vertical shoot positioned vines [Vitis vinifera (L.)] at Bordeaux, France. Canopy gap fraction and vertical leaf area index (VLAI) measurements were also performed. Plot NDVI maps were obtained by linking the GreenSeeker to a GPS during measurements. The NDVI delivered by the sensor was sensitive to the variations of vertical leaf area index and gap fraction of the canopy, that is, vine vigor. The GreenSeeker was successfully used to carry out a follow-up of the foliar growth of the vine, but with many precautions. The maps obtained showed relative variations of vigor at an intraplot level, enabling access to relevant information for better vineyard management.

Abbreviations: LAI, leaf area index • NDVI, normalized difference vegetation index • PW, pruning weight • VLAI, vertical leaf area index

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Received for publication May 17, 2007.

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Abstract 30 of 32 back

REMOTE SENSING

Optimization of Crop Canopy Sensor Placement for Measuring Nitrogen Status in Corn

Darrin F. Robertsa,*, Viacheslav I. Adamchukb, John F. Shanahanc, Richard B. Fergusona and James S. Schepersd

a Dep. of Agronomy & Horticulture, Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583
b Dep. of Biological Systems Engineering, Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583
c USDA-ARS, Agroecosystem Mgmt. Res. Unit, Lincoln, NE 68583
d formerly USDA-ARS, Agroecosystem Mgmt. Res. Unit, Lincoln, NE 68583

* Corresponding author (droberts2@unl.edu ).

Active canopy sensors can be used to assess corn (Zea mays L.) N status and direct spatially-variable in-season N application. The goal of this study was to determine optimal sensor spacing for controlling whole- and/or split-boom N application scenarios for a hypothetical 24-row applicator. Sensor readings were collected from 24 consecutive rows at eight cornfields during vegetative growth in 2007 and 2008, and readings were converted to chlorophyll index (CI) values. A base map of measured CI values was created using square pixels equal to row spacing for each site (0.91 or 0.76 m in size). Sensor placement and boom section scenarios were evaluated using MSE (mean squared error) of calculated CI maps vs. the base CI map. Scenarios ranged from one sensor, one variable-rate to 24 sensors, 24 variable-rates for the hypothetical 24-row applicator. The greatest reduction in MSE from the one variable-rate scenario was obtained with 2 to 3 sensors estimating average CI for the entire boom width, unless each row was individually sensed. In every field, more accurate prediction of CI was obtained by averaging sensor readings across the entire 24 rows rather than predicting CI for more than two consecutive rows using only one sensor in each section. Because of the nature of spatial variability in CI, some fields may benefit from an increased number of sensors and/or boom sections equipped with 2 to 3 sensors each.

Abbreviations: CI, chlorophyll index • MSE, mean squared error • NUE, nitrogen use efficiency • NIR, near-infrared

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Received for publication August 30, 2008.

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Abstract 31 of 32 back

NOTES & UNIQUE PHENOMENA

Methods for Creating Stomatal Impressions Directly onto Archivable Slides

Dennis C. Gitza,* and Jeffrey T. Bakerb

a USDA-ARS, 3810 4th Street, Lubbock, TX 79415-3397
b USDA-ARS, Cropping Systems Research Laboratory, Big Spring, TX 79720-0013

* Corresponding author (dennis.gitz@ars.usda.gov ).

Stomatal density has been shown to be a primary determinant of crop yield, water use efficiency, and limitation to CO2 assimilation rate. Widely used methods of assessing stomatal density sample relatively small regions of the leaf, are labor intensive, or do not yield stable archivable samples for revisiting samples. We describe several methods of producing such epidermal impressions that yield samples large enough to generate stomatal density maps across entire leaf surfaces.

Abbreviations: CA, cellulose acetate • CAB, cellulose acetate butyrate • MeCl2, methylene chloride • MEK, methylethyl ketone • PMMA, polymethyl methacrylate • PVC, polyvinyl chloride

1 Mention of this or other proprietary products is for the convenience of the readers only, and does not constitute endorsement or preferential treatment of these products.

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Received for publication May 2, 2008.

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Abstract 32 of 32 back

NOTES & UNIQUE PHENOMENA

Occurrence and Proposed Cause of Hollow Husk in Maize

Fred E. Below*, Kateri A. Duncan, Martin Uribelarrea and Thomas B. Ruyle

University of Illinois, Crop Science Dep., 1201 W. Gregory Dr. Urbana, IL 61801

* Corresponding author (fbelow@illinois.edu ).

In 2007, a maize (Zea mays L.) ear abnormality that we term here as "hollow husk" occurred in research trials designed to alter the level or the sensing of plant ethylene. The unique experimental conditions of 2007 enabled us to document the occurrence of hollow husk and propose a physiological mechanism for its cause. Ears exhibiting hollow husk have normal appearing husks that feel hollow due to an abrupt cessation in ear development and a concomitant lack of silk emergence. Hollow husk occurred when the foliage of actively growing plants was sprayed before the VT growth stage with a chemical treatment that should either lower the level of plant ethylene (a strobilurin fungicide), or one that should decrease the plant's sensitivity to ethylene (1-MCP). An attempt to increase ethylene status (via ethephon) led to virtually no hollow husk symptoms. The percentage of plants exhibiting hollow husk symptoms depended on the hybrid, the stage of plant growth when sprayed, and the combination of management conditions that promoted plant growth. Plants sprayed at V15 generally exhibited greater symptoms than those sprayed at V11, and hollow husk successively increased with increases in N supply and decreased with increases in plant population. Based on our data, we speculate that hollow husk is a physiological ear abnormality related to a perturbation in the level or the sensitivity of the plant to ethylene.

Abbreviations: 1-MCP, 1-methylcyclopropene • ACC, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid • a.i., active ingredient • DKC, DeKalb • DOY, day of year • R, reproductive • UTC, untreated control • V, vegetative

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Received for publication May 9, 2008.

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